My hometown library has implemented a fitness waiver for their movement and exercise activity programs. I am wondering if this is a good idea for my library. We provide some exercise classes including chair yoga, Zumba, nature walks, and are looking into another movement class activity. For reference, please copy and paste the form used by my hometown library [redacted for anonymity] into your browser or refer to the attached screenshot. Are we within our legal/ethical practices to implement such a waiver? Will we need to consult an attorney to draw up the waiver for a fee, or can we borrow the language used by [redacted for anonymity]? Thank you.
I have a lot of fun-loving clients. Here are some examples of activities I've created liability waivers for:
I have also worked on liability waivers for more commonplace activities like attending a hockey game, horseback riding, and cheerleading.
The purpose of a liability waiver is to limit a person's ability to bring legal action for injuries related to a particular activity. Therefore, the trick to creating a successful waiver is making sure it is enforceable when a worst-case scenario--an injury related to that particular activity--occurs.
Because of the high stakes--and because the law in New York can have an impact on how much liability can be waived (for instance, a waiver of liability at certain types of pools is invalid, no matter how well-written) -- a waiver should almost always be custom-crafted to the actual activity, at a specific place, and thus not borrowed from another entity.
The waiver for the mechanical bull rider was different from the waiver for the hockey spectator.
The waver for the person venting their rage on a car for charity was different from the waiver for an equestrian.
The waiver for the sword fighter actually had more in common with the waiver for the cheerleader than you might think...but was still different.
Add to this diversity the fact that in New York, the waiver for a municipal library might have to look different from one used by another municipal library, or an association library, and there are a lot of variables to consider.
So, my answer to the question "Will we need to consult an attorney to draw up the waiver for a fee?" is: if your library wants assurance that the waiver actually protects the library from liability, then YES.
But wait, there's more.
I appreciate that for a not-for-profit such as a library, which likely doesn't have a budget to go around hiring lawyers to hand-craft waivers for every separate fitness activity (or if it does, would rather spend that money on materials and programming), bringing in a lawyer every time you want to sponsor a new physical fitness event can be cost-prohibitive.
So here are a few options between commissioning a new waiver for every fitness event, and just scrapping such events in the first place.
Solution 1: Pass the risk of liability on to the instructor
Any physical fitness class being offered by a library should be led by an instructor with the documented qualifications and insurance coverage to limit and cover the risk of injury related to the activity.
For a yoga class, this means the instructor should be able to show they 1) are certified by an acknowledged yoga authority; 2) are willing to accept responsibility for injury caused by their yoga class, and 3) have insurance that will cover such injury (whether the person sues the instructor, or the library, or both).
A contract showing all this will 1) recite the instructor's qualifications; 2) list their insurance (and attach a certificate showing the coverage; and 3) include a "hold harmless" and "indemnification." That means that if there is a claim of liability resulting from the classes, the instructor's insurance coverage will take the heat.
Such an instructor will, usually, have their own waiver that they require participants to sign, tailored to the precise activity. Further, to most experienced instructors, none of this will be an outlandish requirement.
Does this mean that start-ups and amateur instructors might not be able to offer classes at your library? Yes...and while it may seem harsh, that is a good thing. If a person is great at yoga and loves sharing what they've learned, but doesn't have the documented credentials to assure the library that they know how to teach it, or insurance coverage, they should not be selected to offer a fitness class by your library.
The public attending a fitness class will trust that the library has picked the right person; having the ability to demonstrate a bona fide qualification and insurance is a key sign you've made the right selection.
Solution 2: Work with your insurance carrier
Your library likely has some form of general premises liability coverage. This means that an insurance carrier, on an annual basis, is sending your library a copy of an insurance policy--and the library is paying for it.
Aside from your board and employees, you know who doesn't want your library to get sued for an injury that happens during a fitness activity? Your insurance carrier.
Now, what I am about to write may, or may not, be helpful. In my experience, some insurance carriers will bend over backwards to make sure their "insured" doesn't get sued; they will offer training on risk management, they will offer employee screenings, and they will offer to review forms and policies. Other carriers, on the other hand, will just accept a check for your library's annual premium, and wish you "good luck" with liability.
When your library is contemplating any physical event with a moderate risk (yes, like Zumba), it is a good idea to check in with the insurance carrier for the library. Do they have waivers they want you to use (even if your instructor has held you harmless)? Do they have rules they require you to post (even if the rules are pretty obvious)? Is there an exception in your coverage (does it not cover fitness classes at all)? All of this is critical to know before your library takes on any risk for a program.
And who knows...I've actually had clients get the "all clear" from insurance carriers, who confirm "Yes, that is within the scope of your coverage, let the Zumba commence!" It all depends on what's in the policy.
Solution 3: "One-Waiver-Fits-Most"
With a "one-waiver-fits-most" solution, an organization identifies a suite of low-risk activities, and asks that their lawyer write "one waiver to rule them all," and only offer that type of activity...saving costly custom waivers for riskier (and likely rarer) activities.
What is "low risk" activity? That is up to your lawyer, insurance carrier, and library. But it in general a "low-risk" activity is one so low-key and mundane, with no heightened or specific risk, that an enforceable waiver covering it wouldn't require any special bells and whistles.
Common examples of such "low risk" activities might include:
Although they might seem low-risk, I would generally exclude from this list:
THESE ARE JUST EXAMPLES...each library's list of "low risk" activities to be conducted with a "one-size-fits-most" waiver will change based on the library's type, level of insurance, and tolerance for risk.
While not perfect, the "one-size-fits-most" solution is a cost-effective way to confidently offer programs from a menu of activities, while also protecting the library and not blowing the budget on legal services.
To ask a lawyer to write a "one-size-fits-all" waiver for your library, gather:
Be ready to meet for maybe half an hour with the lawyer to discuss the fitness events that your library wants to host. For municipal libraries, be ready to involve the town/village/city attorney at either the beginning, or the end, since depending on building ownership, and some other factors, the municipality may need to have some input on this too.
Mix that all together, and you should get:
 Cheerleading may be common, but it is fraught with risk! P.S. NCAA: it should be considered a sport.
 New York Consolidated Laws, General Obligations Law - GOB § 5-326. Agreements exempting pools, gymnasiums, places of public amusement or recreation and similar establishments from liability for negligence void and unenforceable
 In my work with libraries, I have found this is not always the case. One important annual task for trustees is to ensure that the library has adequate insurance.
 In writing. Always confirm legal advice in writing.
 An example of a "bell and whistle" would be the specific warning: "horseback riding is inherently dangerous")
 Unless played the way my family plays, in which case, there is not enough insurance in the WORLD.
 Although I am willing to bet croquette is on the "low-risk" list state-wide.
 Yes, they can be signed and/or archived electronically, but confirm the method with the drafting attorney.
We are a municipal library and the building is owned by the county. The county will be installing security cameras outside the library in multiple locations for safety reasons. These cameras will not be regularly monitored unless there is a reason to consult them. We will not be viewing the footage per a patron’s request. They will be maintained by our county facilities staff and consulted only in cases where a criminal act was committed.
I have two questions related to this.
1. What type of permanent notification do we need to post about the use of cameras?
Many libraries, for a variety of good reasons, have security cameras. Some libraries control those recording systems; others do not. But no matter how they get there, when cameras are in a library, the questions posed by the member are critical.
Here is why: every library in the State of New York is bound by ethics and law to safeguard patron privacy. Those obligations start with the ethics of the American Library Association and the New York Library Association, assuring patron privacy; these ethics find legal teeth in New York Civil Practice Law and Rules and the Public Officer's Law.
At the local level, patron privacy is often reinforced in a library's ethics statement, bylaws, and policies. The practical duties of patron privacy are found in job descriptions (particularly of directors and IT professionals), and in membership terms between libraries and systems. And it is part of every new employees' on-boarding.
Because librarians and library leadership are so aware of this privacy obligation, and because assurance of patron privacy is a key component of information access, protecting patron privacy is often referred to in the library community as nigh-unto-sacred duty. So sacred, in fact, that I have met more than one librarian willing to go toe-to-toe with law enforcement seeking unauthorized access to patron data.
While it takes a certain type of gumption to stand up to law enforcement, it takes another type (equally critical, but not as concentratedly defiant) of gumption to think about patron privacy in the context of software, landlords, and security cameras. One takes a willingness to take a stand in the moment. The other takes a willingness to think about details, to leave nothing to chance, and to ask a lot of very specific, very persistent questions.
Both of these types of gumption are critical to the modern librarian, but only one gives you an easily dramatic answer to the question "how was your day?"
We'll leave the dramatic aspect of this for another time. Below, please find a boring--but vital-- checklist of steps and language to help a library answer the questions posed by the member, when a landlord is using cameras trained on library premises:
Step 1: Assess what the library's lease says about security and use of cameras
For libraries with landlords (remember, your library has a landlord even if you only pay a token amount of rent,) it is important to have a written lease.
Why? Because, among other critical things, that lease can provide clarity about who provides the on-site security (including a camera system) and set the stage for how the landlord and the tenant will manage security-related details.
In this case, the member has clarified that the security system will be controlled by the municipal (county) landlord. Here are the details posited by the member:
These cameras will not be regularly monitored unless there is a reason to consult them. We will not be viewing the footage per a patron’s request. They will be maintained by our county facilities staff and consulted only in cases where a criminal act was committed.
These details, upon which the library will base its own actions, should be confirmed in the lease. Such confirmation should include, whenever possible, a marked survey or map of the property, showing the limits of the camera's line of sight.
Step 2: Assess if the lease terms and security camera arrangements promote the privacy commitments of the library
Just a note: while a municipality may procure and install a camera system with the intent to only monitor it "in the event of alleged criminal activity," in my experience, there is no way to enforce such a restriction, and some risk that the use of the cameras could change over time.
A library can't control this. That said, when a camera system is installed, a library can request assurance that the municipality's internal policy, governing the cameras, include language:
Once a library performs these two steps, it can answer the member's two questions:
First question: What type of permanent notification do we need to post about the use of cameras?
Once the library has written assurance that the landlord's use of recording technology will not result in the creation or disclosure of a library record, it is up to the director and board if, or how, your library should alert the community.
Personally, as a patron, I would appreciate a "courtesy notice" such as: "Your library records are confidential. Please know that while our landlord has security cameras in [ZONES], the library does not allow recording that could impact patron privacy inside the building."
OR (if the library makes use of its own security cameras): "Your library records are confidential. Please know that our landlord has security cameras in [ZONES] and may use those for security purposes, but any security camera record maintained by the Library that shows use of library services is considered confidential and is used for library purposes only."
For instance, after the analysis is done, the board can note in the minutes: "Regarding the landlord's use of outside security cameras: As of DATE, the Library's landlord, NAME, will have security cameras observing certain outdoor areas, including library property. The Library has verified that its lease, and the landlord's internal policy, prevent the landlord's security cameras from generating or disclosing confidential library records. The public will be notified as to where the cameras are recording, and that such recordings are not confidential library records."
I appreciate that this review/confirm process can be a bit clunky. However, it is also an opportunity to alert a critical partner (a landlord, and sponsoring municipality) to the importance of library-patron confidentiality, and to assure the public that privacy is a priority. By seizing the moment to confirm that privacy is being properly considered and enforced, a library not only assures its ethics and legal compliance, but can create an ally in that eternal (and important) fight.
I hope this approach is helpful.
 As found in the NYLA Code of Ethics: " III. We protect each library user's right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to information sought or received and resources consulted, borrowed, acquired or transmitted."
 CPLR 4509 states: “Library records, which contain names or other personally identifying details regarding the users ...including but not limited to records related to the circulation of library materials, computer database searches, interlibrary loan transactions, reference queries, requests for photocopies of library materials, title reserve requests, or the use of audio-visual materials, films or records, shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed except that such records may be disclosed to the extent necessary for the proper operation of such library and shall be disclosed upon request or consent of the user or pursuant to subpoena, court order or where otherwise required by statute.”
 If it's not, it should be.
 You guys are so cool when you do that.
 Like the member is, here.
 Generally, this token rent is placed at $1/year. Just once it would be fun to see a more random number, like $1.26/year.
 Such as insurance, hours of operation, emergency procedures, notification in the event of injury, protocol for repairs, capital improvements, etc... For more commentary on this, see https://www.wnylrc.org/ask-the-lawyer/raqs/166 about having any MOU with a sponsoring municipal entity.
 If security cameras are aimed at a curbside pick-up location, the library should consider if the recording is a library record.
 Forbidding recording in a public library is a controversial topic, I know. This language is written to address recording that can impact patron privacy.
 Hey, I managed to make careful attention to minutia sound dramatic!
A municipal public library has accepted a gift of real property and is selling the property.
How much autonomy does the Library have in accepting and selling this property? The sponsoring municipality feels that perhaps it is their responsibility to handle the sale according to their regular procedures, including a permissive referendum (as required by law).
Finally, who controls the proceeds from the sale?
In law school, one of the first classes you take is "real property."
I remember thinking, back in that first semester before my brain got converted into that of a lawyer: "Real" property? What...is there something called UNreal property?
Of course, nowadays when I see questions like this—about land, and land rights, and the laws impacting them—I think "Oooh...a question about real property!"
Warn your kids: this is what three years of law school will do to you.
I appreciate questions about real property, because I really enjoy working on issues involving land, and land rights, and the laws impacting them. Whether it's roads, old buildings, or construction matters, some of my favorite work requires reviewing surveys, obsessing over title abstracts, and poring over inspection reports. And don't get me started about design-build contracts.
In this case, many of the fundamental considerations of this submission were addressed in a previous "Ask the Lawyer" from 12/13/2019. So as a primer, readers may want to take a look at that previous answer, where we discuss some of the fundamental things a library has to consider when selling real property.
This background allows me to jump right into the specific concerns of the member's questions:
Question 1: "How much autonomy does the Library have in accepting and selling this property?"
Answer: unless there is a specific provision in the library's charter, bylaws, or contract with its sponsoring municipality that expressly creates some type of co-ownership, the library, as the sole owner, has ALL the autonomy.
Question 2: The sponsoring municipality feels that perhaps it is their responsibility to handle the sale according to their regular procedures, including a permissive referendum.
Answer: unless there is a clear legal claim that puts title entirely or partly into the municipality, the various state laws governing sale of municipal property do not apply; rather, the sale is governed by Education Law Section 226.
Question 3: Finally, who controls the proceeds from the sale?
Answer: the board of the library, and no one else.
To the member's brief, pithy questions, I will add a question of my own:
Question 4: Why am I so confident about the answers to questions 1 through 3?
Answer: because I have researched the following:
These materials span over sixty years of library law-making, and I am not going to summarize them all here. But for those who wish to dive a little deeper into this topic (buckle up, unless you, too, are interested in real property, I've been told this is pretty boring), here is a brief overview:
Education Laws 260 and 226, together, confirm that the trustees of every library chartered in New York, may "[b]uy, sell, mortgage, let and otherwise use and dispose of its property as they shall deem for the best interests of the institution..."
Here are some examples showing how this legal structure has been applied:
In 1953, the NY State Comptroller opined that when a village and a library jointly acquired property, they were co-owners. This means a library can co-own a library building along with its sponsor (much as two individuals can co-own a parking lot). If that is the case, the law and regulations applicable to both entities would govern a sale. However, that same year, the Education Department confirmed that a chartered library is a separate entity from its municipal sponsor.
Flash forward to 1976, when the Comptroller stated that a school district library could acquire a building on its own. Since that time, there hasn't been a lot of case law over who owns library buildings: like any other stand-alone, not-for-profit education corporation, a library can own its own building.
That said, while the New York Education Law empowers public libraries to buy, sell, mortgage, and otherwise dispose of their real property, there are other laws and regulations controlling how the resulting assets can be used. This is why a public library (or any library) should not buy, sell, lease, or arrange for capital improvements without its lawyer involved (that goes double for accepting a bequest or a restricted donation of land or a building, which has not only legal/regulatory considerations, but could also be fraught with the drama that can accompany wills and transfers of land).
Now, in the midst of all this ownership/autonomy, it is good to remember: not all public libraries own their buildings. Some libraries are tenants of their sponsoring municipality (to check the ownership of the building, check the deed or the real property tax records for your county). But even a library that is a tenant of their municipality buildings can own a separate building—if some nice person or entity decides to give them one.
So in a case like the one described by the member, the most useful thing would be to 1) check the library's charter; 2) check the documents giving title of the property to the library; and 3) make sure the lawyers for both the municipality and the library (and the buyer!) are on the same page about ownership and salability. As the lawyers do their "real property" thing, so long as the title is "clear" and solely in the name of the library, it is the library who owns the property, and the board of the library who decides if/how to sell it (in a way consistent with its charter, bylaws, and charitable status....on that, see the "Ask the Lawyer" from 12/13/2019).
Thank you for a great question.
 A "title abstract" is a summary of everyone who has owned a parcel of property since it was first regarded as something to be owned. It can contain all sorts of historically salacious details, like when a house was foreclosed on, or what it sold for in 1935.
 Which all Regents-chartered "municipal" libraries are.
 Opinion of the State Comptroller #142 (1953).
 Opinion of Counsel for the NY Education Department No. 61 (also 1953).
 Another type of "public" library.
 Opinion of the State Comptroller #771 (1976).
 There is a lot of case law involving the planning and construction of library buildings, but no squabbles about who actually owns them. For a good example of a case involving construction of a library, see Matter of Rimler v City of NY, 53 Misc 3d 1212[A], 2016 NY Slip Op 51627[U] [Sup Ct, Kings County 2016].
 Martin v Board of Education, 39 Misc. 2d 519, 241 N.Y.S.2d 396, 1963 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 1971 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1963).
 It is important to know who owns the building! If your library is a tenant rather than an owner, it impacts things like personal injury cases (an example of this is found in Deinzer v Middle Country Public Library, 2013 NY Slip Op 33823[U] [Sup Ct, Suffolk County 2013].
Are public or private libraries obligated to give paid time off for eligible employees to get the vaccine during work time? A staffer is planning to go upstate for it on a work day and the question came up if they have to use sick time or just "get the day" to take care of this. Thank you!
Recent changes to the Labor Law make the "private" part of this question easy to answer: since all employers must now offer all employees sick leave (unpaid if the employer has under four employees, paid if five or more), an employee may use that sick leave for the purpose of obtaining medical care, including to get vaccinated.
If a non-government-agency employer would like to go one step further and not require an employee to use accrued sick leave, but instead, give them a day (or two half-days, for the vaccine that requires two shots) for the specific purpose of being vaccinated, that's fine, too, so long as the library considers vaccination of employees to be part of its Safety Plan (making the vaccination a work activity, and not a prohibited gratuity from a charitable entity to a private person). But there is no obligation to do so.
Small but critically important exception to this rule: if your library employees are in a union and their time off is subject to a collective bargaining agreement, you must check and abide by that agreement, or develop a special provision with the union.
Okay, this is where it gets tricky. For public libraries that consider their employees to be employees of a "government agency," hang on one second, we'll address what you can do in the paragraph below. For all other public libraries, who must follow the new sick leave law, the section above applies.
Public Libraries Who are "Government Agencies"
For public libraries whose employees are considered employees of their sponsoring municipalities, there is no obligation to "give" paid time out of the library to get vaccinated unless it is in a collective bargaining agreement or your government subdivision's response plan. However, if your library is allotted vaccine as part of a rollout to public employers, and the entity you are getting it through (sponsoring municipality or school district) is encouraging vaccination by allowing it to be done on work time, that is an option to consider. Further, if your library develops an employee vaccination rollout plan as an addendum to its Safety Plan and would like to offer up to a certain number of hours of paid time out of the office to encourage vaccination, if part of a plan, that can be allowed (but is not required).
Small but very important exception to this rule, just like with "private" libraries: if your library employees are in a union and their time off is subject to a collective bargaining agreement, you must check and abide by that agreement, or develop a special provision with the union.
Issues like this a) affect mission and morale, b) relate deeply to employee and public safety, c) can impact a library's budget, and d) are fraught with compliance concerns, so any decision is best to tie to your library's Safety Plan, and to have trustee approval (confirmed by a vote).
I continue to admire the care for others, tenacity, and attention to detail members of the library community bring to their questions as we get through this pandemic together.
 Just to be clear: to avoid a forbidden benefit to an individual, NO charitable entity should "give" a paid day off for vaccination without linking the enhanced safety of workers to its charitable operations (i.e., making it a part of their Safety Plan).
 Note: even when this is the case, the library's board of trustees, and only the board of trustees, determines who is hired, how they are compensated, and any matters related to development, discipline, and termination.
 At least, it is not required as of 1/21/21. As with all things COVID, check for updates on this.
 And be reviewed by a lawyer, whenever possible.
I work with a number of municipal public libraries - some are village, others are town. Some libraries use their municipality's employee handbooks, payroll, services like snow blowing and building maintenance, and have the municipalities cut the checks.
It would be helpful to have a clear understanding that the libraries are not a department of the municipality and that the board of trustees is in charge of the library, hiring staff, evaluating staff, approving expenses, and have complete control of the budget.
It would also be helpful if there was a sample MOU that spells out the division of responsibilities clearly.
Many of the questions we get at "Ask the Lawyer" relate to this concern. As the priorities cited by the member suggest, the library-municipality relationship is a Big Issue.
I have worked with city, town, and village attorneys, in one way or another, for most of my professional life. So I can understand why sometimes, if they are focusing on reducing liability or overhauling operations, a town board or a city mayor might be tempted to think of the library as "just another department."
But we know that is not the case.
With all that in mind, I am very grateful to have this opportunity to craft a pro-active answer to this issue.
I am going to let the requested sample Memorandum of Understanding—or "MOU"—do most of the talking on this topic. For comments on why I have included certain things, you'll see footnotes and items in italics that should be removed from any final version (unless you have a really fun-loving and tolerant town attorney).
Of course, with all things "template," this MOU should only serve as a boilerplate.
Further, libraries with very sensitive or less-than-ideal relationships with their municipalities might want to use this only as an internal guide for discussion. It's not a fun fact, but it remains a fact that some municipal leaders could take a "request for clarity" as an act of aggression.
And as noted throughout, to the greatest degree possible, your library should consult their own attorney about the different considerations in this template. With that in mind, I hope this document is a useful starting place for that attorney, and I welcome calls from lawyers working with this document.
And here we go:
USING THIS TEMPLATE: Any guidance in italics, and the footnotes, should be removed before an MOU using this template is finalized. If at all possible, the MOU and attachments should be reviewed by an attorney before signature. Items in bold are non-negotiable; they are based on the law and are not subject to change.
[PROPOSED] MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING
Between the [NAME] Library and the [MUNICIALITY]
This memorandum of understanding is between the [NAME] Library (the "Library") and the [INSERT NAME OF MUNICIPALITY] (["GOVERNMENT ENTITY" or "GE"]), which both serve the community of [INSERT NAME OF MUNICIPALITY] (the "Community").
This memorandum of understanding ("MOU") is entered into by the Library's Board of Trustees (the "Library Board") and the [AUTHORITY OF THE ENTITY] ("[GE AUTHORITY]") and is intended to ensure clarity and unified purpose with regard to critical interdependencies between the Library and the GE. Together, the Library and the [GE] are the "Parties" to this MOU.
As a living document this [first] version of the MOU sets forward both items of clarity, will be revisited by the Parties in the month of [INSERT] every [TIME SPAN].
Mission and Shared Purpose
The mission of the Library is [INSERT MISSION].
The mission of the [GE] is to [INSERT MISSION].
The Library and the [GE] share the mission-oriented purpose of serving the Community within the [GE] by [compose and insert "shared purpose"]; this is their "Shared Purpose."
The Library is a public library chartered by the Regents of the New York State Education Department on [DATE], as shown in the most recent version of the Charter attached as "A" (the "Charter").
As required by law, the Library is governed by a board whose authority is set by sections 255, 256, 260, and 226 of the New York Education Law, the Not-for-Profit Education Law, the Charter, and the bylaws of the library. A copy of the most current bylaws of the Library is attached as "B."
The [GE] is a Municipal Corporation incorporated under the laws of New York State in [YEAR].
As required by law, the [GE] is governed by [INSERT].
A copy of the [GE] Code (the "Code") may be found at [insert code link].
[IF RELEVANT] The provision[s] of the Code pertaining to the Library are attached as "C."
The Relationship of the Parties
As a Regents- chartered entity, the Library is an independent corporation with the ability to own property, enter into contracts, employ a workforce, and maintain its own bank account for the management of library funds.
Further, the Library is required by state law and regulation to employ adequate employees to staff the Library in fulfillment of its Plan of Service, which is attached as "D."
Since the [GE] and the Library are two distinct entities, many of their operations occur independently of the other. However, for the sake of their Shared Purpose, the leadership of the parties have determined that certain "Critical Interdependencies" are in the best interests of the Community.
These "Independent Operations" and "Critical Interdependencies" are itemized below, with comments or additional information in column 3.
Independent Operation or Critical Interdependency?
When possible, check your conclusion with your lawyer before making a final determination.
Important information or attachment
Ownership of Library Building
This should specify if the library or the municipality owns the structure housing the library.
If the GE owns the structure but charges no rent (or $1), it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library owns its premises, it is an "independent operation."
Attach a survey or schematic of the library's complete property as "F".
Maintenance of Library: capital improvements
This should specify who takes the lead on capital projects and how the parties will work together for remodeling or building a new library.
By "take the lead," I mean: who signs the contracts for the work and manages the different factors in the capital project?
If the GE "takes the lead" on capital improvements, it is a "critical interdependency." If the library takes the lead, it is an "independent operation."
The library should always have copies of warrantees and contracts related to capital improvements.
Maintenance of Library: emergency repair
This should specify what happens when a pipe bursts and you need to stop the water and fix the pipe, or who makes sure the elevator gets fixed promptly (we'll handle damage to library assets in another section).
If the GE is responsible for arranging emergency repair, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library does, it is an "independent operation."
This is a great place to list who to call in the event of a facilities emergency.
Maintenance of Library: landscaping and snow removal
This should specify if the library or the municipality does the work or contracts for it.
If the GE is responsible for external routine maintenance, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library does, it is an "independent operation."
This should establish not only the party responsible, but set the expectations for service (for instance, should the driveway be plowed before the employees arrive on a snowy day? That sounds good to me).
If performed by a third party, the library should always have copies of contracts related to grounds maintenance, even if the contract is with the GE.
Maintenance of Library: routine cleaning
This should clarify the line between "routine" cleaning (like weekly vacuuming) and "non-routine cleaning" (like cleaning up when a printer cartridge breaks open near the rare book room), and specify if the library or the municipality does or contracts for the work.
If the GE is responsible for routine cleaning, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library does, it is an "independent operation."
If performed by a third party, the library should always have copies of contracts related to routine cleaning, even if the contract is with the GE.
Details such as when the cleaning is, and the levels of access of workers, are important to clarify.
Damage to library structure: insurance coverage
This should specify what insurance covers damage to library structure.
If the GE coverage applies, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library supplies its own coverage, it is an "independent operation."
The board should always have a copy of the policy covering the library structure, and the copy should be in the cloud, not just in the library.
Always. This should not be left to chance.
Current insurance policy or amount determined for "self-insurance" by municipality is attached as "F."
Library Security Personnel
This should specify if the library or the municipality supplies any security personnel.
If the GE is responsible for security personnel, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library employs or contracts for its own security, it is an "independent operation."
Any discussion of this or contracts relating to security should emphasize rights of access and patron confidentiality, and clearly establish who is "in charge" of the security personnel (who tells them what to do).
Library Security System, including any cameras
This should establish who pays for, monitors, and owns the system and any content on it.
If the GE is responsible for security personnel, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library employs or contracts for its own security, it is an "independent operation."
Any discussion of this or contracts relating to security should emphasize rights of access and patron confidentiality!
Insurance coverage for damage to library assets (collection, furniture, equipment)
This should specify what insurance covers damage to library assets (not the structure). The type and amount of coverage should be assessed on an annual basis by the board of trustees.
If the GE coverage applies, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library supplies its own coverage, it is an "independent operation."
To help with this item, a library should have an inventory of its assets.
The board should always have a copy of the insurance policy covering the library assets, and the copy should be in the cloud, not just in the library.
Always. This should not be left to chance.
Current insurance policy is attached as "G."
Employees: who is the employer
The employer of the employees is the library, not the [GE].
This is not negotiable.
Employees: who processes payroll and tracks leave accruals
If the GE issues the paychecks, it is a "critical interdependency."
If the library runs its own payroll, it is an "independent operation."
Whatever entity (or third-party contractor) is doing this, it must be done properly and with proper retention of payroll records and paid time off accruals.
Employees: who administers benefits
If the library employees get benefits (health insurance, retirement) through the GE this is a "critical interdependency."
If the library arranges its own benefits, it is an "independent operation."
Copies of Summary Plan Documents ("SPD's") or other benefit descriptions are attached as "H"
Employees: what coverage applies for workers' compensation, paid family medical leave, and disability?
If the library employees are covered through the GE, this is a "critical interdependency."
If the library arranges its own coverage, it is an "independent operation."
This is another one to have absolute clarity on!
Your library should have the most recent mandatory postings up in an area accessible to employees, confirming this clarity.
Employees: what employee policies apply, and who is responsible for determining them
The employer of the employees is the library, not the municipal entity. While the library may "borrow" some or all municipal policies, within the constraints of applicable law and regulation, the board of trustees determines the employment policies.
Sexual harassment/civil rights complaints, whistleblower complaints, resolving conflict of interest matters
These complaints must always be managed by the Library Board per the relevant library policy.
Library Emergency Response Plan(s)
Optional but encouraged
The entity responsible for the library's response in an emergency is the Library Board, not the municipal entity. While the library may "borrow" some or all municipal policies, within the constraints of applicable law and regulation, the Library Board determines any emergency response-related policies.
Facility use policies
Regardless of whether the library owns the building, or is a "tenant," only the Library Board determines facility use policies of the library (for example, rental or free use of rooms and other library space).
A good facility use agreement establishes the rules of use, confirms if/how liability for the use is transferred (hold harmless, indemnification), and addresses if insurance is necessary.
Who hangs onto the money?
Library funds are solely controlled by the library, regardless of where the funds are kept.
Even if the operational funds of the library are held by the GE, this "critical interdependency" should be confirmed as being in aid of separate and distinct library finances solely controlled by the Library Board.
Money can be a HUGE source of dysfunction between a library and its municipality. Before picking any battles, the Treasurer, director, and board should have clarity about their expectations and goals for stewarding the funds of the library. This is a good topic to stay in touch with your system, Library Development, and your lawyer on.
Fiscal controls (petty cash, cash handling policy, book-keeping, accounts receivable and payable, use of credit card, tracking restricted funds, tracking capital funds)
To the extent needed, and consistent with a public library boards autonomy over library finances, these policies are to be adopted by the Library Board.
Different libraries will have different audit obligations, but all are subject to audit by the New York State Comptroller.
Any audit of the library should be done with the awareness of the library board.
The last 10 years of audits should be accessible for review by the parties.
Procurement and disposal of library assets
Although controlled to a certain extent by law, procurement and disposal of library assets are solely controlled by the Library Board.
The library budget is passed by the board.
The library board is the entity that decides to sign any Library System membership agreement.
A library facing a determination based on any of the factors in this chart should reach out to their System as soon as possible for assistance. Although every system is different, they will be a critical ally in navigating these items. Remember, you are not alone!
Custom factors special for your library
Every library is different. Use this section to track custom factors that impact your library-municipality relationship.
There are so many cool, odd, special things out there in library world, I am only surprised when a day goes by and I haven't learned about a new one.
Directors and Officers insurance and/or indemnification of library trustees
If the GE provides coverage and/or indemnification, this is a "critical interdependency."
If the library has its own policy, it is an "independent operation."
The board should always have a copy of the policy covering the library trustees and directors against assertions of liability in the course of their library duties.
Always. This should not be left to chance.
Current insurance policy is attached as "I."
Acknowledged on behalf of the [NAME]Library on _______:
Acknowledged on behalf of the [NAME of ENTITY] on _______:
A: Library Charter
B: Library Bylaws
C: Section of municipal code pertaining to library
D: Library Plan of Service
E: Survey or schematic of library property
F: Current Insurance Policy (premises)
G: Current Insurance Policy (assets)
H: Benefit documents
I: Current Insurance Policy ("Directors and Officers Insurance")
 My first experience with municipal law was when I worked for attorney Dan Seaman, who has served as the town attorney for many towns and villages in Niagara County, New York. My former partner Daniel Shonn was the town attorney for Akron, NY, and I covered town meetings from time to time. I worked closely with the Town of Lewiston and the City of Niagara Falls attorneys when I was the in-house counsel at Niagara University. And lately, even though I love my city very much, I just can't stop suing Buffalo (on behalf of clients), so they are really getting to know me at the city law department.
 Critical difference between an "MOU" and a contract: an "MOU" is, by design, not intended to be enforceable-although it may recite items that are enforceable via other means (for instance, if they simply recite something that is mandatory under the Education Law, which this one will). For libraries seeking to elevate an MOU to an enforceable agreement, it is best to work with a lawyer from the get-go.
 (716) 464-3386, or email@example.com.
 Any NY library system that wants a fillable version of this MOU Template can write to Jill@stephaniecoleadams.com
 For this item, you will select whatever type of entity you are working with: city, town, or village. For this template, we're going to call it the "GE" (for "government entity"), although that will make it sound like you are trying to make them turn right in the 1800's.
 The authority entering into the MOU will vary depending on the entity type.
 This name will also be modified to reflect what applies to your municipality: Town Supervisor, Village Board, City Common Council, etc.
 This "time span" should be selected to ensure you never have a fresh board of trustees and municipal leaders who don't know how things need to function.
 A nice "shared purpose" might be "the service and betterment of those living in our community." It's nice to revisit the "shared purpose" every now and again so leadership is invested in it and it doesn't get stale.
 Make sure you use the most recent version of the Charter. An updated copy can be obtained via a request to New York State Education Department, Division of Library Development. If there is enabling legislation, attach that, too, since the legislation can impact some of the variables in the chart.
 This is whatever combination of leadership calls the shots for the municipality: town supervisor and board, etc.
 I am sure I don't need to tell a library audience that most municipalities have their codes online, but I just love footnotes.
 Yes! This MOU will need a binder or a routinely updated database to hold all the attachments! Don't you love it?
 From what I have seen—and at this point, it's a lot—every library working with a municipality handles this differently. It's like a Myers-Briggs personality test...endless permutations, even within similar types.
 Knowing the exact physical footprint of the library is critical! Among many other things, this is how you set the boundaries for the limit on things such as, for example, smoking near the property.
 This is critical for compliance and clarity about patron records under the New York Civil Procedure Laws and Rules (CPLR) 4509.
 A not-so-fun, but instructive, read on this topic is found in the NY State Comptroller Audit found here: https://www.osc.state.ny.us/sites/default/files/local-government/audits/2018-09/lgsa-audit-library-2018-brentwood.pdf
 A list and copies of most postings is here: https://labor.ny.gov/workerprotection/laborstandards/employer/posters.shtm
 Extensive information on this topic is found here: http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/trustees/handbook/pltreasurer.htm
 A good example of this is in Ask the Lawyer https://www.wnylrc.org/ask-the-lawyer/raqs/68
 "Indemnification" is when an organization defends a director, officer, or employee in a lawsuit (like a discrimination claim).
Could we use any of our budgetary funds as collected through our tax levy and/or funds received from donations (restricted and unrestricted) to pay for food (dry goods, fresh produce and/or fruit) and PPE's which would be given freely to the public/patrons some of which may not be from our community (we would not ask them for a library card or ID)?
If so, could it be considered a program or if not what other budgetary designation would you suggest it be given?
Before I answer this, I am going to share a story. Trust me, it’s relevant.
When the workforce restrictions and ban on large gatherings due to COVID-19 started impacting libraries, the first wave of questions to “Ask the Lawyer” were about continuity of operations. Specifically, they were about continuing payroll and still offering programs, even though staff would need to work from home.
Because Executive Orders and public health restrictions were happening at a rapid pace, answers needed to be developed quickly.
If there is one thing the lawyers hate, it is quick decision-making. We like precedent, we like time for research, and we like ample time to reflect on the implications of our client’s decisions. In a world moving ever-faster, this is one of the things I cherish about my profession: it demands reflection.
But with libraries waiting for input, I didn’t have the luxury of time. My research indicated that—barring a union contract provision or other express intervening factor—job expectations could be temporarily altered and library programs could continue, re-tooled to meet social distancing requirements (a/k/a “online”) while ensuring legal compliance and limiting liability. But I couldn’t take a week or two to decide.
So I did what lawyers do when we don’t have time to let advice ferment—I turned to another lawyer.
I called an attorney I knew would appreciate the nuances of a question involving municipal law, Education law, taxpayer money, and the all-seeing eye of the NYS Comptroller. I laid out the thinking that would eventually form my answers, and asked him to poke any holes he could see (I think I said “Pretend you’re the attorney for an angry taxpayer”).
He asked a few well-informed, testing questions, and when my legal analysis held up, I felt good.
But then he asked:
“Cole, do you actually think when this thing is all over, the Comptroller is going to organize a posse and hunt down libraries for trying to help their communities? I mean come on…people are in real need here. Who would do that?”
I laughed, and it felt good. I thanked him and said I owed him one (in my world that means he gets to ask me a similar favor, any time, night or day, and I have to deliver).
Here’s the truth, though: although I laughed, my secret answer to his question was: Yes. Yes, I do think that when this is all over, the Comptroller could audit and expose fiscal mis-steps by well-meaning libraries. And I am also concerned that frightened tax payers and municipalities, searching for a way to “solve” fiscal panic, could use any small lapses in compliance or transparency to try and reduce budgets next fiscal year (just when they’ll be needing their libraries to assist with ongoing community recovery). That is why the member’s question is so important.
That said, I got into this business because I believe that law, when well-developed and thoughtfully applied, can ensure justice and create the conditions for a happy society. And I think the law—even as construed by the Comptroller—will allow for the actions proposed by the member, without the concern that a prohibited gift or shady transaction was engaged in.
I’ll give you three solutions.
Some Necessary Background
As a primer to each solution, just in case you haven’t checked in on fiscal controls for public libraries, every reader should visit NYLA’s excellent “Handbook for Library Trustees” (2018 edition), pages 50-58. This section sets forth all the routine requirements for properly accepting, retaining, spending, and accounting for both public and privately sourced funding.
The solutions below, and the steps to set them in motion, build off the assumption that a library is following the fiscal practices laid out in those pages.
And just one more thing…
Okay. Let’s say your board is ready to assess and approve budget adjustments to initiate the acquisition and distribution of food and PPE. Your staff and some volunteers are rarin’ to go. All you need to do is sort out the legal stuff.
But before worrying about how to fund it, or how to characterize the initiative in the budget, the first thing to consider is safety.
No matter what situation the library is in, a written safety plan, informed by OSHA and CDC guidelines, and ideally, confirmed with the local County Health Department, is the first priority for any such initiative. Before approving funds, a board should review the plan for safety, and be assured that it is as well-developed as it can be (and again, if at all possible, confirmed by experts).
So with that “safety first” caveat, here are the three solutions:
Solution 1: Acquisition and Distribution Only (No programming)
Objective: The library will acquire and distribute food and PPE, without any educational programming component or further conditions for participation (people can just stop by and pick up what they need).
Step 1: Organizers (who could be board members, or staff, or volunteers…any combination is fine) develop and, with a county health official, affirm a safety plan for the distribution of the resources. This plan should include how the items will be acquired, transported, and picked up, and what staff and volunteer resources will be used.
NOTE: to ensure the safety of employees and protect the library from any liability, changes to routine job duties should be confirmed in a short letter referencing the safety plan.
Step 2: Considering the need they hope to fill, and safety parameters, organizers develop a procurement plan, consistent with library policy and pages 50-58 of the Trustee Handbook, for the supplies to be acquired. This plan should consider the appropriate sourcing and selection of supplies (PPE meeting CDC guidelines, food suited to re-distribution), and the need to follow relevant procurement laws.
NOTE: On March 27, the Governor issued Executive Order 202.11, which suspends the public bid opening requirements of General Municipal Law Section 103(2) (of course, 103 only applies to purchases exceeding $20k…that would be a lot of PPE!).
Step 3: The Treasurer develops a budget recommendation for a budget change that will fund the procurement plan, and confirms to the board that any private funds to be used are not barred by donor terms (if all of the steps in this solution are followed, it will be a legal use of tax levy funds).
Step 4: The board looks through its mission and plan of service and selects the language in those guiding resources consistent with a distribution for the goods to promote the health or general well-being of the community.
Step 5: The board verifies the above steps, verifies consistency with bylaws and library policies, and sets a meeting under the modified procedures of the Open Meetings Law to adopt a customized version of the following resolution:
WHEREAS it is the mission of the [NAME] Library to [insert] and the plan of service for the library includes [insert];and
WHEREAS the state is currently in a state of emergency as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; and
WHEREAS owing to the pandemic and state of emergency, the library’s area of service is in an unprecedented state of need with regard to fundamentals and supplies for personal safety; and
WHEREAS, owing to travel restrictions and the need of essential workers to serve our community, some people within our area of service may not be card-holding members of the community, but still be in need of supplies that will protect the their well-being, as therefore the general health of our area of service; and
WHEREAS the board finds it consistent with the mission and plan of service to adjust the current budget of the library to allocate resources to assist those within our community by supplying fundamental resources to enable the promotion of health and safety during a time of emergency; and
WHEREAS because the library is uniquely situated and widely regarded as a trustworthy and centrally located institution whose resources are freely accessible to all, and regards it as mission-critical to continue that role at this time; and
WHEREAS the library staff has identified a written plan for the safe allocation of such fundamental resources, and such plan has been reviewed by appropriate health officials; and
WHEREAS the library staff has identified and the board has duly reviewed a proposed plan for the responsible and compliant procurement of such resources, which is attached to this resolution and included in the minutes of this meeting; and
WHEREAS the Treasurer has verified that any private sources of funding do not bar the proposed procurement;
BE IT RESOLVED that the current budget be amended to direct [$amount] from [insert] to the acquisition and free distribution of food and personal protective equipment during the state of emergency, and during any period of recovery (the “Community Health Initiative Plan”); and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the acquisition of such resources listed in the Procurement Plan shall be conducted and accounted for per all the required provisions for procurement; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the library shall effect the distribution of the resources only as set forth in the attached Safety Plan.
Solution 2: A Public Health Program
Objective: the library develops a program, consistent with its plan of service, to educate participants on PPE and the importance of good nutrition during a pandemic, and after a short educational program, makes supplies available. This could even include innovative and fun ideas, like a recipe from a local chef, or instructions for canning food.
Step 1: Organizers develop and, with a county health official, affirm the content of a short educational program, as well as the safety plan for distribution of the resources.
Step 2: Follow all the steps in “Solution 1,” but add this “whereas” clause to your resolution:
WHEREAS the library staff has [developed/identified] a short informational program on personal protective equipment and the important of good nutrition, and such program has been [reviewed by/endorsed by] appropriate health officials;
And add this further action to the resolution:
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that in conjunction with the distribution of fundamental resources the library shall promote the short informational program identified in the Safety Plan.
Solution 3: The Partnered Program
Objective: together with another entity, and per a written agreement, the library allocates financial, and perhaps other, resources to a joint public health initiative to acquire and distribute supplies.
This one I can’t provide a template for: the permutations are just too diverse. I can only say, when working with another entity, the library will need to consider every element listed in the above solutions: safety (first, always), mission alignment, employee needs, budget, and proper vetting of the plan by appropriate health officials.
Because of the risks related to compliance, a collaborative approach (unless it is just a donation to one of the above efforts…with that, take the money and get it done!) should be only through a written agreement that has been reviewed by the library's lawyer. For this reason, it could be more cumbersome than other approaches, but in the event of a worst-case scenario, confirming all those details will be worth it.
For All Solutions
For any of the solutions I have outlined above, a critical contributor may be the library's insurance carrier. Right after the organizers start developing the plan for safety, someone should give your carrier a call, just to make sure there are no “exclusions” from the policy or conditions for your library to consider.
How do you check in with a carrier on this? Just tell them: “Some lawyer who writes about library legal issues said we should check in with you before we do this.”
While your insurance carrier is probably used to the library developing innovative programming and serving a wide swathe of the population, the distribution of food and PPE during a pandemic is something they might want to weigh in on. That said, in my experience, most carriers will encourage your initiative. They might ask questions about where the distribution will take place, who is offering the programming, and how you are sourcing the supplies.
Since the answers might impact your planning, it is better to call them early in the process, rather than just before the board meets (telephonically, as allowed by Executive Order 202.6) to vote.
And who knows? They might even have some helpful hints for you as you undertake to support your community. This whole thing is keeping agents and adjusters awake at night, just like the rest of us.
Okay, once I start waxing on about insurance, it’s time to pack it in. I hope this was helpful, and I hope it can contribute to your library meeting the needs of your community.
Thank you for a great question, for your determination, and your dauntless innovation.
 This image his rhetoric inspired in my head--an army of GAGAS-wielding accountants, riding horses across libraryland, handing out fiscal frontier justice—makes me laugh now, too (but also cringe).
 In violation of Article VIII, Section 8 of the NY Constitution.
 One cardinal rule at “Ask the Lawyer” is “don’t reinvent the wheel.” If library resources have already been used to develop solid guidance on a topic, we simply refer the member to that answer. Lucky for me, librarians are innovators, so there are always new topics to address.
 Some libraries and library systems may have determined that, because they are regarded as a subdivision of government, the current workforce reduction orders do not apply to them. Others will be organizing a program with the restriction that employees must (as of April 28, 2020) 100% work from home. Still others will be coordinating terms of employment with a union. This answer presumes your library is working within its own, unique parameters.
 By stressing this, I don’t mean to imply that the member is not thinking about safety (in fact, the care the member is taking about legal compliance suggests to me that they place a high priority on safety). I just want to make sure that in any initiative to assist during this time of emergency, safety is the first consideration on the table. At all times.
Our public, municipal library wants to seek funding through a school board levy. The boundaries of the school district we’re petitioning are outside (but include) our municipality. Are there any legal impediments to a public, municipal library going on the school district ballot? We have reached out to New York State Ed’s Division of Library Development and NYLA, but seek a lawyer's perspective.
Perhaps because our nation was born resisting taxes, few things can rile a close-knit community so much as a good old-fashioned tax levy. This is one area where the legal issues might be simpler than the range of human emotions.
That said, the laws governing a school district’s support for a library can present significant considerations, if not impediments, before it can be successfully deployed. So let’s fly at 10,000 feet, and look at the lay of the land.
There are relatively few entity types that can levy taxes based on real property, and school districts are one of them. In addition to facilitating school funding through those taxes (the school budget “levy”), districts are empowered to raise a separate amount for “library purposes.”
This power to tax for the benefit of libraries comes with some very clear conditions.
First, the amount to be raised for the library must be listed as a separate item on the ballot; the voters must see it as distinct from the funds to be levied for the school(s).
Second, if the proposition passes, the funds must be delivered to the treasurer of the library as soon as possible, and cannot be retained or mingled with district funds.
Third, the amount of taxes attributable to library purposes must be separately stated on each statement of taxes. Voters should be able to easily discern the difference.
Now, here is where things get really interesting.
There are two ways such a proposition related to a library levy can get on a school district ballot: 1) a vote by library’s board, or 2) a petition directly from the voters. Since 2007, the precise amount of any proposed levy has to be endorsed by the library’s board (this is so competing or even contrary funding resolutions can’t get on the same ballot). When a library board votes to request it, the proposition must be placed on the ballot—even if it lacks the support of the school board.
This power can be used to the benefit of any public library: municipal, special district, school district, free association, etc. This is true even if the precise boundaries of the school district and the library’s chartered area of service don’t match up.
How can that be? Anyone who follows “library world” knows that there are numerous kinds of libraries: municipal (created by and with the boundaries of a city, town, or village), school district, special district (which can cross and combine municipal borders), and free association. The permutations of these libraries are vast, but all serve their communities without charge, and thus meet the definition of “library” as used in Education Law §259. And thus, all qualify as a “library” that may be supported by a tax levy by a school district.
Here is how the New York State Commissioner of Education, quoting an earlier case, put it as recently as 2015:
As stated in Earlville, a school district is among those entities enumerated in Education Law §255 and, thus, is authorized to vote taxes “for library purposes” pursuant to Education Law §259(1)(a). Earlville noted that, “although only those entities specifically enumerated in Education Law §255 may levy a tax for library purposes under §259(1)(a) [citations omitted], there is no restriction in §259(1) regarding the type of library for which such taxes may be levied.”
Voters, of course, are free to reject the request for support (they can also bring a petition to cease the levy). But the mere act of being asked gives the voters a direct opportunity to consider their community’s overall commitment to educational resources. In library-philic New York, where we treasure books and learning, this is a critical commitment to education, information access, and community advancement.
It is also a serious vote, since once the levy has been established by the school district, it remains in effect each year until there is a vote to have it removed (which, again, can be initiated by the library’s board, or the voters).
As described by the member, boards considering a school board levy are wise to gather (early) ALL the support they can as they plan for a school board tax levy proposition. The State Education Department’s Division of Library Development maintains a great starter kit for an initiative. Reaching out to NYLA, as well as other library advocacy groups, can be critical. And a lawyer with experience in education law (to help draft resolutions, track the paperwork, and have your back when the unexpected happens) is an essential member of your team.
But while you assemble your team and resources, don’t forget “the people.” As the famous Tip O’Neall liked to say, “All politics is local.” So while it’s essential to know a tax levy initiative stands on firm legal ground, nothing replaces careful cultivation of support for your initiative. That is where the allies listed above, and an attorney looking at the specific circumstances of your library (and always the latest case law), are essential.
Thanks for a great question on a very important topic. Good wishes for a vote that supports democracy, community, and information access.
 They are listed in New York’s Real Property Tax Law, which is a fun read if you are lucky enough to be amused by tax law.
 See NY Real Property Tax Law Article 13.
 See NY Education Law Section 259(1)(a).
 New York Real Property Tax Law, §1322 (1) and §1324.
 See New York Comptroller Opinion 92-28, as well as Education Law §259(1)(a) and Real Property Tax Law, §1322 (1) and §1324.
 New York Real Property Tax Law, §1322 (1) and §1324.
 See Education Law §259(1)(a), and for some good color commentary on the process, see New York State Education Commissioner Decision 15,662, which established that once the tax has been turned over to the library, the taxing authority can’t demand it be returned, even if they have to give a taxpayer a correcting refund.
 Education Law §2035(2). To see how this plays out in the field, check out Education Commissioner Decision # 13,891.
 See Bill S03542, 2007.
 §239(1)(a), again!
 This is due to the law being amended in 2007. The objectives of the amendment are detailed in the legislative “memo” for A05107 (2007). The impact of the changes is also discussed in Education Commissioner Decision 16,765. Buckle up if you explore this avenue…there is some quibbling.
 This broad interpretation of the word “library” as used in Education Law §259(1)(a) was established in New York State Education Commissioner Decision 12,423, regarding Earlville Free Library, in 1990. Although §259(1)(a) was amended in 2007, the approach of “Earlville” as the case in known in library circles, was re-affirmed by the Education Commissioner in 2015 (see Decision #16,765, regarding Jamesville-DeWitt Central School District).
 As defined by Education law §253(2), that term includes any library established for “free public purposes by official action of a municipality or district or the legislature….” Some time is spent on this definition in the “Earlville” decision, referenced above. Note that the definition does exclude libraries within technical, professional, and public schools.
 This was also established in Education Commissioner Decision 12,423, regarding Earlville Free Library (1990).
 To say nothing of cooperative and federated libraries.
 You’re seeing a lot of citations to the Commissioner here. That’s because per Education Law §2037, the Commissioner with “exclusive original jurisdiction over all disputes concerning the validity of any district meeting or election.” See Education Commissioner Decision 14,571 (2001).
 Appeal of The Board of Trustees of the Earlville Free Library, 1990 Op Comr Educ No 12423. It is worth noting that while §259 was amended in 2007 (17 years after Earlville) this principle was upheld in 2015 in Decision 16,765,regardingtheJamesville-DeWitt Central School District.
 This is broken down in a great Comptroller Opinion: 1981 N.Y. Comp. LEXIS 726, 1981 N.Y. St. Comp. 176.
 See New York State Commissioner of Education Decision 15,002 “Appeal of Beaver Falls Library” (2003), applying Education Law §259(1).
 Check out their guide “School Districts and Taxes for Public and Association Libraries: How the Partnership Works” at www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdec/libs/sdtaxes.htim.
 I would spend a paragraph or two on what “the unexpected” is, but of course, we can’t expect it! That said, a good look at Education Commissioner Decisions numbers listed in these vast footnotes answer can give you a flavor.
 I just finished his autobiography, “Man of the House.” An interesting read, and a great primer for anyone wanting an abject lesson about local, state, and national politics.
 Taking care to abide by all restrictions and best practices for libraries and political activity.
Are municipal public libraries obligated to provide retirement benefits for all employees? Does the library board need to approve a motion to provide retirement benefits for all employees or selected employees? Does the number of hours pertain? Or does the employee qualify for state retirement system benefits through the municipality? Again - is it based upon hours worked?
Retirement benefits play a critical part in employee recruitment and retention. Library leadership should carefully consider—and routinely re-evaluate—the role of retirement in the suite of benefits they use to attract and nurture personnel.
To craft the right retirement approach, leaders must consider not only the legal landscape of their library, but the local job market, their recruitment objectives, and their retention goals. The final approach should not only support the library’s plan of service and vision for its mission, but comply with all relevant law. To ensure this, the plan and final documents should be evaluated by both leadership, as well as an HR professional and attorney.
Municipal public libraries crafting a retirement plan must work with local government; this is because the retirement benefits they can offer flow from the municipality they are attached to. For that reason, any municipal public library addressing retirement benefit issues should reach out to their municipality’s HR department and/or attorney.
The member’s questions are a good jumping-off point for some general guidelines to this process. To take them in order:
Are municipal public libraries obligated to provide retirement benefits for all employees?
No. Per New York Retirement and Social Security System Law Title 2, Article 2, municipalities may resolve to participate and enroll their employees in the New York State & Local Retirement System (“NYSLRS”), but such resolution and enrollment is not compulsory.
Once a municipality decides to enroll, the NY Comptroller’s Office helps with the initial assessment of costs. After enrollment by the employer, precise rules govern which employees are eligible for what level of plan; a great summary of who qualifies, and how, is here: https://osc.state.ny.us/retire/word_and_pdf_documents/employers_files/employers-guide/section-5.pdf.
Does the library board need to approve a motion to provide retirement benefits for all employees or selected employees?
Yes and no. A municipal public library’s enrollment in the NYSLRS flows through the enrolled municipality;  if the municipality is enrolled in the system, the (municipal public) library can participate. That said, to emphasize employer autonomy, promote awareness, and ensure harmony of the retirement plan and benefits with other library operations, the board should be apprised of and vote on the retirement benefit, as well as its description within the employee manual and relevant policy.
NOTE: This “employer autonomy” aspect cannot be emphasized enough. While great care should be taken by library leadership to coordinate certain employment-related matters with the municipality, a municipal public library SHOULD NEVER SURRENDER OR IGNORE THEIR AUTONOMY AS THE EMPLOYER. There are a great many opinions of the NY Comptroller (the go-to for municipal governance and budget issues) that emphasize the importance of this notion; it is a critical consideration and one deserving of a great deal of board attention and foresight (and professional input).
Does the number of [employee]hours pertain?
There are very precise formulas and enrolling, qualifying, reporting, and claiming NYSLRS retirement benefits, and employee hours are most definitely a part of those formulas.
Hours are only a small piece of the puzzle, though. The bigger parts are the details leadership will explore as they identify, and develop, a retirement benefit that supports the strategic direction and mission of their library. That is a project that will take many hours of thoughtful work and exploration…but if undertaken with the right players, will bring great benefits.
 Interestingly and somewhat famously (among the 14,000 or so library law aficionados in New York), this does not mean the municipality is the employer. However, it does mean that many of the employee retirement benefits must (to a certain extent) be coordinated with the procedures and reporting of the local government. NOTE: I invented the possible number of “library law aficionados,” but since I find this stuff fascinating, maybe 13,999 other people do, too.
 Information on kicking off the process of enrollment is here: https://www.osc.state.ny.us/retire/employers/employer_partnership/an_employers_role/becoming_a_participant.php
 As reflected in the excellent comparative chart on the New York State Education Department’s Division of Library Development Page: http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/libs/pltypes.htm.
 For instance, Op. State Comptroller 93-15, from 1993.
 A helpful guide on reporting hours to the NYERS is here: https://www.osc.state.ny.us/retire/word_and_pdf_documents/employers_files/employers-guide/section-6.pdf#search=%20libraries.
 Pun intended.
Is it possible for a municipal library and an association library to share one employee? The association library would handle payroll and manage benefits, the municipal library would pay the association library their percentage for the employee's time. Could this happen with two association libraries and one municipal library? Individually, our libraries are unable to offer full-time with benefits, but collaboratively, we could provide a full-time position. What are the legal steps to creating such a job share?
I have good news, and bad news.
First, the bad news: most of the legal factors involved do not support this type of “job share.”
Now, for the good news: the type of capacity-adding at the heart of the member’s question is feasible…with a slightly different legal structure.
What are the legal steps to creating such an arrangement? For chartered libraries, they are numerous and intricate, but considering the goal (added service), the work might be worth it.
Here are the factors to consider:
1. The libraries’ chartered identity
The question cites a potential collaboration between a municipal and an association library. Just in that coupling, there are issues, since depending on entities’ size and type, the institutions will have different staffing requirements. When considering a capacity-adding staffing model, those requirements should be kept in mind at all times.
2. The libraries’ bylaws and staffing policies
Staffing requirements and other factors impacting staffing might be recited in the libraries’ bylaws and policies. So those documents, too, should be factored into this exercise.
3. The libraries’ plan(s) of service
Does the resulting staffing schema fit into their respective plans of service?
4. Labor law details, such as workers’ comp, unemployment, FMLA, and ADA
Here is where the technical nitty-gritty, and the concerns that generally bar “shared” staff between separate entities, starts. Whenever an employee is brought on to work at more than one legal entity, it is important to confirm who would actually be the employer, so the arrangement complies with state and federal labor regulations.
One example of why this is important is workers’ compensation. Per New York state law, if a worker sustains an injury on the job, that worker is covered by “comp,” and the employer is indemnified for (almost) any personal injury claim. This protects both the employee (who gets some wage/salary continuance) and the employer (who generally does not face additional liability for the injury). In a truly “shared” employee arrangement, with debatably two (or more) employers, the resulting ambiguity could result in a contested or denied coverage claim.
Another example of how a “dual employer” arrangement could be risky is revealed by considering the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). Under the ADA, employers are responsible for providing employees with reasonable accommodations for permanent and temporary disabilities; failure to do so can result in serious liability (and fines). But with a “shared” worker, it can be tough to know who would have that responsibility…and be responsible for failing to follow the law.
There are many more reasons along these lines.
5. Salary equity and benefits-related details
This is a critical one, because employees who are not treated equitably in comparison to other employees can have an array of legal claims. Examples abound: If one library offers more paid time off than the other, how do the libraries offer the “shared” employee a fair and legally compliant arrangement? If the libraries have different systems for evaluation and promotion, how does the employee advance? If one library is found to be treating a particular class of employee unfairly, does that impact the other library? While minimal staffing at the employing institutions might limit some of these concerns, even if there is one other part-time staffer to compare to, ambiguity could turn into liability.
6. The actual legal relationship between the libraries and the “shared” employee
From the legal perspective, this is where the rubber hits the road. For the reasons set out above (and many others), it would be almost impossible for both libraries be “joint,” employers: even if possible, it would likely be too risky. But with another legal relationship, this resource-sharing might be feasible.
What is that “legal relationship?” Well, it would depend, but the most feasible solution would likely be one library hiring an employee specifically to add to the capacity of other libraries. In this model, there would be no “shared,” employment; rather, the first library would offer their employees as extra capacity on a contractual basis.
In such a “Capacity Contract” scenario, money paid by the second (or third) library would not be a salary/benefit contribution, but rather, a fee for services (that happened to help pay for the salary and benefits of a full-time librarian). The relationship would need to be carefully set out in a detailed contract and hiring documents that confirmed how any performance evaluation, employee discipline, civil rights, personal injury, and other claims would be handled. And the factors I list above (starting with the identity of both libraries, and considering the various regulatory, bylaw, and policy obligations they have) would have to be assessed to see if it was even feasible. Most critical would be: is adding to the capacity of others consistent with the hiring library’s plan of service?
With careful planning by leadership and trustees,and input from an attorney and HR professional, this type of “shared” staffing could be built. The end result would be:
As I said at the beginning, this could be a fair amount of work. But if it provides a small library with access to specific expertise and a diversity of talent it might otherwise not be able to afford, it could be worth it. Just approach the details with care.
Thank you for this important question.
 In addition to those considerations, although it is not legal, I feel I must mention a quasi-political or strategic element. As we know, once taxpayers, municipal leadership, and other entities see cost-cutting, it is hard to close Pandora’s (newly efficient) box. So while it is not a legal consideration, per say, being mindful of how any innovations in staffing efficiency will play out long-term is wise. You don’t want a clever solution to become the tool of a permanent budget cut!