RAQs: Recently Asked Questions

Topic: Protecting Against Misconduct - 10/14/2020
In light of recent accusations of alleged misconduct by community organization volunteers utilizin...
Posted: Wednesday, October 14, 2020 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

In light of recent accusations of alleged misconduct by community organization volunteers utilizing public library facilities, how should libraries protect themselves moving forward?

Many of our libraries have community rooms that are reserved at no cost, or minimal cost, for service organizations, community groups, or private events. Typically these events are not monitored by library staff, and often occur outside of normal library operating hours. Although community room use by the public may be limited based on scheduling and other parameters, discrimination based on the type of program/service is generally prohibited.

What best practice measures should libraries implement to reduce liability? Is there particular language that we should include in our community room rental agreements or policies?

On a related note, what about other library visitors that make use of library common space on a regular basis for tutoring or counseling that doesn't constitute a library sponsored program or group? Library staff cannot always monitor what occurs out of view of staff workstations, and cameras don't typically capture every secluded space within the building.

Finally, what about staff who often work alone in the library, or alone in the children’s' room? Even with policies regarding unattended children under a particular age, those age limits are often well below adulthood and library staff are in a one-on-one situation for extended periods of time.

This concern is primarily related to accusations of sexual misconduct and abuse of minors, but could apply to anyone, at any time, for any reason.

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

In 2012, I was an in-house attorney at a university when the "Penn State Scandal"[1] broke.  Along with the nation, I was horrified to learn about the serial sexual abuse of children by a powerful coach in an NCAA Division I football program--and just as critically, the system that allowed the abuse to go unchecked for so long.

If I hadn't been before, at that point I became acutely aware of the responsibility of an institution to safeguard the vulnerable populations it serves—even when only hosting or renting a part of its facility.[2]  I looked to the law and other guidance for solutions, and spent time working on contracts, policies, and trainings for safeguarding minors--and avoid liability for failing to do so.

As the member's questions point out, in a busy, community-oriented library, that liability can enter the scene in many ways.  Let's tackle their questions one-by-one.

Member question: Many of our libraries have community rooms that are reserved at no cost, or minimal cost, for service organizations, community groups, or private events. What best practice measures should libraries implement to reduce liability? Is there particular language that we should include in our community room rental agreements or policies?
I have spent a lot of time over the last four years[3] reviewing various library policies.  And if there is one thing I have learned, it's that almost every library governs the use of its space by outside organizations differently. 

This makes a uniform approach to this question difficult, but I think I can give you some good initial food for thought by providing two answers:

ANSWER #1: adopt a “Protection of Minors” addendum to written policies and (ahem[4]) "handshake procedures" for allowing use of your facilities for one-time (or very rare) use by outside groups.

Thank you for using the ABC Library for your gathering! 

At the ABC Library, our mission is based on service to the community, and that includes a commitment to practices that keep our community safe.

Therefore, a representative of your organization must fill out this "Assurance Regarding Minors" before granting you permission to use the space.

1.  Will your event include minors (children under the age of 18)?  YES     NO

If "NO", we're all set, please sign and date below.

If "YES", please continue

2.  Will your event require the guardian or parent of any minors attending to be present?

YES     NO

If "YES", we're all set, please sign and date below.

If "NO", please continue

3.  If minors unaccompanied by a parent or guardian will be at your event, please list the adults responsible for the well-being of the minors, and how your organization has confirmed they do not pose a risk to the minors.

Name

Role in your organization

Method of risk assessment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thank you for filling out this assurance.

DATE: ________________

 

SIGNATURE: _______________________

PRINT NAME: ________________________

ADDRESS: ____________________________

 

WITNESS: _______________________

PRINT NAME: ________________________

ADDRESS: ____________________________

 

ANSWER #2: Add a "Protection of Minors" provision to the standard contract your library uses  to set the terms of regular/routine use of your facilities by outside groups.

[NOTE: A "Facility Use Agreement" should name the organization in the contract,[5] set out the rules for use, confirm if the use is paid, bar use for political purposes,[6] and—critically—if there is a heightened risk to the activity,[7] require insurance.  What I have set out below is just the provision related to minors.  A template facility use agreement is on "Ask the Lawyer" at https://www.wnylrc.org/ask-the-lawyer/raqs/167.]

Protection of Minors

The ABC Library expressly forbids abuse or sexual abuse of minors on its premises. 

As a condition of using space in the Library, ORGANIZATION represents and warrants:

a.  ORGANIZATION has verified, and shall verify every six months, that all employees and volunteers who will be at the Library per this Facility Use Agreement are not listed on the New York State Sex Offender Registry.

b.  ORGANIZATION maintains a policy barring sexual abuse within its operations, and requires all employees and volunteers to report instances of sexual abuse to law enforcement within 24 hours of observation or receiving a report of sexual abuse; a copy of the policy is attached.

c.  The indemnification and insurance provisions in this agreement expressly include indemnification and coverage of the Library, its trustees, officers, employees, volunteers and agents for any complaint, claim, or cause of action related to alleged sexual abuse.

 

Next member question: On a related note, what about other library visitors that make use of library common space on a regular basis for tutoring or counseling that doesn't constitute a library sponsored program or group?

This is a very tough one, because the risk will vary based on the design and capacity of your library.

Libraries with space in wide-open areas near circulation and reference desks obviously have an advantage in this regard: there is lots of space for people to meet as described in the question, without the seclusion that can provide protective cover for illegal behavior. 

That said, libraries also provide secluded areas so people have places for quiet contemplation.  Quiet contemplation being one of the things we need more of in this world, I imagine most libraries are not considering totally getting rid of it any time soon.

There is no perfect solution to this issue, but here is the best input I can offer: once every few years (at least), a library should review its floorplan, policies, and any and all safety-related concerns with the library's insurance carrier.  They will be in a position to help the library assess its unique position in this regard.

 

Finally, what about staff who often work alone in the library, or alone in the children's room? Even with policies regarding unattended children under a particular age, those age limits are often well below adulthood and library staff are in a one-on-one situation for extended periods of time.
At least once a year, staff—especially staff who work alone or in isolated areas—should be trained on practices to keep themselves and others safe.  This should include:

  • Security protocols
  • Emergency response plan
  • Recognizing warning signs and preventing violence in the workplace
  • Appropriate boundaries in the workplace
  • Addressing and responding to medical emergencies (including mental health emergencies)
  • Enforcing the Code of Conduct
  • Generating documentation of incidents

For some libraries, this training will draw on a large collection of formal policies.  For others, it will simply be running through a series of standard operating procedures.

The goal of such training--and the answer to the member's question--is to develop and enforce good boundaries (set by written policy or a well-articulated "standard operating procedure"[8] or "SOP") that includes a clear set of rules[9] for how to interact with minors, and every person and co-worker in the library.  By developing such rules/procedures while focusing on the entire spectrum of how a library keeps its employees and patrons safe, the energy spent on training and thinking about safety-related best practices will be maximized.

  • Requiring groups routinely using library space to give critical assurances and supply insurance;[10]
  • Requiring less routine users to at least give written assurance as to how they ensure safety;[11]
  • Training employees regularly to be aware of and ready to enforce policies related to safety;

...positions a library to both diminish the risk of child abuse at its premises, and to have the documentation to show the library did the best it could to diminish that risk.  This reduces both the likelihood of harm, and liability.

And as always when it comes to managing risk and liability, as often as is practical, invite your attorney and your insurance carrier to participate in these efforts--they are critical partners in such initiatives. 

Thank you for a very important set of questions.



[1] I am sure you can Google it, but here is a link to a thorough summary: https://www.chronicle.com/package/penn-state-scandal/

[2] I am also a parent. However, you'll only get the cool, rational lawyer part of my brain for this answer, since the "parent" part of my brain does not think about this issue either coolly or rationally. 

[3] That's right, "Ask the Lawyer" has been around for almost four years! 

[4] Since COVID has killed the handshake, we'll just call these "unwritten policies."

[5] In the sample language, I am calling the organization using the library's room "ORGANIZATION."

[6] For more on this political issue, see https://www.wnylrc.org/ask-the-lawyer/raqs/95.

[7] Like learning how to make stained glass (which can lead to nasty palm cuts), and leading a group of minors (which requires consideration of how an organization guards against abuse).

[8] Like, for instance, not having physical contact with patrons (no matter what their age).  Of course, such a protocol is a lot easier to enforce in COVID-times.

[9] If I ran your library, those rules would be: no physical contact with patrons (regardless of age), no unaccompanied minors under 16 allowed if the library only has one employee on staff, no leaving the circulation desk when patrons are in the library if there is only one employee on hand, no being in a room alone with an unaccompanied minor.  It would also be a rule that these rules are consistently applied.

[10] Answer #2.

[11] Answer #1.

Tags: COVID-19, Meeting Room Policy, Template, Behavioral misconduct

Topic: Template Facility Use Agreemnet - 9/29/2020
Can you provide a template facility use agreement for renting or allowing community groups to regu...
Posted: Tuesday, September 29, 2020 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

Can you provide a template facility use agreement for renting or allowing community groups to regularly use space in a public or association library?

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

Yes, I can!  But first, a few caveats:

  • Any template contract is just a starting point.  Use a lawyer to generate a version of this document customized to your library. 
  • For any Organization that wants to use your library for a high-risk event (sports, concert with stage or sound equipment, large event open to the public, routine presence of children), whenever possible, additional review for insurance concerns and premises liability is wise.
  • When filling this out, always make sure the nature of the Organization is confirmed (individual, DBA, LLC, NFP, corporation, etc.), and you have confirmed they exist as stated. 
  • If the form shows that an activity requiring a professional license is going to happen (haircuts, massage, tax prep, legal clinic) obtain a copy of the insurance coverage for the professional activity and make sure it names your Library.
  • No political events should occur unless it is confirmed the arrangements conform to IRS and NYS Charities guidance.
  • A copy of the signed contract should be kept for 7 years (because the statute of limitations to sue on a contract is 6 years). 

 

ABC Library

FACILITY USE CONTRACT

This contract for facility use is between the ABC Library (the "Library") and INSERT NAME ("Organization") an [insert type organization/individual] ("Organization") with an address of [INSERT], for temporary use of [INSERT ROOM# or Description] in the Library (the "Space").

Details of Temporary Use

 

Date(s) and time(s) of use

 

 

NOTE:  If use is routine ("Every Monday in 2020") note the routine

 

 

 

Purpose of use (the "Event/s").  Please describe the activity to be conducted while you are using the Space.

 

 

 

 

 

Estimated maximum attendees

 

 

 

Will you bring in any contractors or third parties under contract for this event?

 

If so, you must provide the Library with a copy of the contract and they must name the Library on their certificate of insurance.

 

 

 

Please list any special details

 

 

 

Person from Organization who will oversee Organization's use of the Space (must be present at all times) and their back-up person

 

Name:

Cell number:

E-mail:

 

Name:

Cell number:

E-mail:

 

[If applicable]

 

Rental Fee on a per-use basis

 

NOTE:  If the use is charitable and the fee is to be waived, the use must not involve any political activity as defined by the IRS.

 

 

 

[If applicable]

 

Fee is payable to [INSERT] and shall be paid by:

 

 

 

Will minors unaccompanied by parents/guardians be attending the event at the Space?

 

If yes: does Organization have a policy barring abuse of minors, and requiring instances of abuse of minors in connection with Organization's programs to be reported to law enforcement within 24 hours?

 

 

 

Is Organization a chapter or affiliate of a larger organization?

 

If so, include larger organization's name.

 

 

 

Will the event involve food or the creation of materials to dispose of?

 

If yes, what time will clean-up, including removal of all trash and recycling generated by the event, be completed?

 

 

 

Organization's Library Contact (the person who will help them with any questions and address any concerns)

 

 

Name:

Email:

Cell:


Library Mission and Terms of Use


The ABC Library's mission is [INSERT].

As part of its mission, the Library requires that all people on Library property abide by all the Library's policies.  In addition, while using the Space, Organization and any person at the Space in affiliation with Organization must at all times follow the below rules, and any reasonable request of any Library representative.

Rules include:

No harassing, abusive, or demeaning activity directed at any person or the Space.

No contact that violates any applicable law or regulation.

In the event of an emergency at the Library, Organization shall abide not only by the reasonable request of any Library representative, but also any first responder assisting with the emergency.

In the event of any injury to any person, or incident of property damage while the Space is in use, Organization will immediately notify the Library Contact listed in the chart above immediately.  In the event of a crime or medical emergency, call 911.

Aside from those attending the event(s) in the Space sponsored by Organization, no filming or taking pictures of any individual in the library (visitor or employee) is allowed, without their express permission.

After use, the Space will be restored to the condition it was in prior to Organization's use, by the Organization, unless otherwise specifically confirmed with the Library Contact.

Organization will not promote the event using the Library/Space as the location until this contract is fully signed and (if applicable) Organization has paid the applicable Rental Fee.

Drafting note: if the Library does not own the building, add any other rules based on requirements in the lease.

Violation of any rules may result in the termination of this Contract with no refund, and denial of future use.

Emergency Cancellation

This Contract guarantees that Library will reserve the Space for Organization as set forth in the "Details" section, above. However, in the event the Library or a related entity experiences an emergency which, in the sole determination of the Library, requires the cancellation of the use (including but not limited to condition at the facility, weather emergency, or event requiring Library's emergency use of the space), Library shall notify Organization as soon as possible, and work with Organization to refund the fee or determine a new date, whichever is preferable.

Indemnification
To the greatest extent allowed by law, Organization hereby agrees to indemnify and defend and hold harmless the Library, its Board of Trustees, employees, agents, and volunteers, from any and all causes of action, complaints, violations, and penalties, and shall pay the cost of defending same, as well as any related fines, penalties, and fees, including reasonable attorneys' fees, related to Organization's use of the Space, including conduct by any third party or contractor present at the Space as part of the Event/s.

Insurance
Organization shall provide insurance meeting the requirements shown in exhibit "A."

Drafting Note/Instruction: the person at the Library organizing the contract will either select the default insurance requirement, which is the conventional insurance demand, or it shall be determined that no insurance is required.  For organizations conducting routine meetings, and especially if children are served by the Organization, the library's lawyer, and/or your insurance carrier will almost always advise insurance be required. 

Person signing for Organization
The person signing on the line below on behalf of organization is at least 18 years of age and has the power to sign for the Organization.
 

Venue for Dispute
This contract and any related action shall be governed according to the laws of the state of New York, and Venue for any dispute shall be INSERT county, New York.

Accepted on behalf of the Library:___________________     on:___________

                              Print name:__________________

 

 

Accepted on behalf of the Organization:___________________          on:___________

                              Print name:________________________
 

Tags: Association Libraries, COVID-19, Emergency Response, Meeting Room Policy, Policy, Public Libraries, Template

Topic: Temporary disuse of a meeting room - 8/26/2020
My library's reopening plan calls for not allowing group meetings/ programs for a time. The...
Posted: Wednesday, August 26, 2020 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

My library's reopening plan calls for not allowing group meetings/ programs for a time.

There is some concern for a BOT member as to if the library can legally do this. The concern is if a community group or club that regularly meets in the library were to want to meet again, could they challenge the library in regards to this issue? In a nutshell, the question is "Do we legally have the right to suspend and not allow all meeting room use as the library reopens?"

As library director my thought process is that as long as the policy is being equally and fairly enforced to everyone then there should not be an issue. This does beg the question however as to what may happen if the city, which owns the building calls "eminent domain" and quickly demands use of a meeting space they own in an emergency circumstance. This is rare but has happened a few times in the past.

Any input you have would be greatly appreciated.

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

I have been looking at some of my post-COVID "Ask the Lawyer" responses, and they are pretty grim.  Such serious writing.

Of course, these are serious days, and operating during COVID-19 is a serious topic.

But I have been on the lookout for a chance for some joy, if not some outright levity.  And finally, this question supplies one!

Why would a question about temporary disuse of a meeting room make me happy?  Well, as some of you may have noticed, very little gratifies me more than emphasizing a library's autonomy.[1]

So, hear me rejoice: Yes, your library has the right to disallow all meeting room use in the interest of safety!

And if that isn't joyful enough, get ready for more good news: this is true whether your library is a tenant or a landowner, a public library or an association library, a library in a big city or a library in a small rural village!

Why is that?  If a chartered library in New York has assessed its unique space, its unique operational capacity, and its unique ability to operate safely, and as a result has adopted a Safety Plan that does not allow meeting spaces or on-site programming, then...there will be no meeting use or on-site programming.  It's as simple as that.

Now, that said, can someone try and complain about it?  Sure.[2] Can a building owner (like a town or a landlord) try and over-ride it? Yes.[3]  Could a pre-COVID contract be implicated?[4]  Yes.  But as an autonomous entity governed by an independent board, can your library make a Safety Plan and stick to it?  Yes.

As it should be.

Of course, within that autonomy is the obligation to steward and utilize library assets responsibly, and in compliance with the law.[5]  This is why the member's point about uniform enforcement and clarity is so important.  If the access is restricted for the Book Club, it needs to be restricted for the Comic Book Club, and even for the Garden Club.[6]  But after ensuring basic fairness and compliant use of library resources, the baseline decision about what facilities to allow access to during the pandemic is in the hands of the library's board and director.  And as I have said in many of my recent answers: they must put safety first.

Only one thing remains to be said: despite my obvious relish for the task, I want to assure the reading public that I still did my homework for this reply.  As of this date,[7] the only court rulings in New York to address litigation or complaints about library access as impacted by COVID-19 are numerous claims about transmission concerns impeding access to a prison law library[8] (now, in that case, I can understand why someone would complain).  But I found nothing regarding action against public and association libraries due to COVID-induced closure, reduced operations, and impediments to general access.  Hopefully it stays that way.[9]

Thanks for a good question and for some time on the bright side.

 

 



[1] It gives me a very "we the people" thrill that no amount of election-year jitters can override.

[2] I am sure that by now (August 25, 2020), MANY of you have heard MANY complaints...complaints about masks violating the ADA, complaints about the Library being too open or too closed, complaints that your signage is in the wrong font, or perhaps complaints about the smell of your hand sanitizer being too fruity.  These days, people just need to complain about something—it helps us feel more in-control.  I know I directed a very strongly worded message to my local government regarding document retention policies after the repeal of Civil Rights Law 50-a; for about 10 minutes, I felt really in charge of my own destiny.

[3] This is why a lease, or at least an agreement with a municipality who may own the library building, is a good idea.  At the bare minimum, such a document should address security/confidentiality, insurance for loss, the protocol for an on-site slip-and-fall, and the process for planning capital improvements.

[4] For instance, a facility rental agreement.

[5] For instance, once your meeting room is again accessible to the public, you can't let a start-up business owner hold a pop-up retail stand there to turn a profit, since that would risk compliance with several laws and tax regulations.

[6] Comics are very cool, but obviously your library doesn't want to play favorites.  And just because the Garden Club shows up with trowels is no reason to give them special treatment.

[7] August 25, 2020.

[8] There are already over a dozen of these.  A typical case can be seen in Vogel v Ginty, 2020 US Dist LEXIS 148513 [SDNY Aug. 14, 2020, No. 20-CV-6349 (LLS)].

[9] It will be hard enough sorting out the impact on budgets and various regulatory requirements.

 

Tags: COVID-19, Emergency Response, Library Programming and Events, Meeting Room Policy, Policy, Reopening policies

Topic: Local organizations meeting using library's Zoom account - 5/27/2020
My Director has asked me to ask you the following question. In normal circumstances the library wo...
Posted: Wednesday, May 27, 2020 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

My Director has asked me to ask you the following question. In normal circumstances the library would host the meetings of local organizations that do not have a building of their own. The library hosts the meetings of organizations like "Concerned Citizens", "Race Unity Circle", the "Bahá'í society", etc. All nonprofits that do not have large budgets and utilize the library for their meetings. Is the library legally allowed to use the library's Zoom subscription to host meetings for these groups as an Outreach Program? In the same way the librarian would be there to book the meeting, set up tables/chairs, and greet the group, the Zoom meeting would be booked, the link distributed to members, and the librarian there to open the meeting up at the specified time. I would be interested if your answer is different depending on whether the library is in an emergency closure situation or not.

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

Life is full of surprises.  When I was in third grade, I was surprised to learn that this strange country called “Canada” occupied the upper half of North America.  When I was in fifteen, I was surprised to learn that “brooch” rhymes with “roach.”[1]  And upon researching the answer to this question, I was surprised to learn that Zoom doesn’t have an “exclusive use” clause in their service agreement.[2]

Now, let me be clear, the Zoom “Terms of Use,” most certainly bar simply enabling a “third” party to use a library’s account.  Here is the clause that does that:

You may not offer or enable any third parties to use the Services purchased by You, display on any website or otherwise publish the Services or any Content obtained from a Service (other than Content created by You) or otherwise generate income from the Services or use the Services for the development, production or marketing of a service or product substantially similar to the Services.

In other words, Zoom doesn’t want you to “offer” your account out to another party (even if that party is a legit not-for-profit). 

But the member has asked if they can serve as the “host” of the meeting, mirroring the way their library opens its doors for certain groups and gatherings.  Both functionally and grammatically—and thus legally—this means the library is the one using the service.  It’s like my law firm using our Zoom to host a board meeting for a client, since I need to be there anyway.  Or, perhaps more closely, an educational institution letting a student group use its Zoom, so the student newspaper can soldier on. 

So the stark, simple answer to the member’s question (“Is the library legally allowed to use the library's Zoom subscription to host meetings for these groups as an Outreach Program?”) is “YES.”

That said, being a detail-oriented, pro-risk-management, and liability-averse kind of attorney, I can’t just leave it there.

Physical meetings at your library all must follow some rules.  Some libraries set these rules by policy, others confirm them with both a written policy and a facility use contract. 

These documents ensure that the particular rules at that library will be followed.[3] The same should apply when the library is hosting a Zoom meeting for your community. 

In addition, since the Zoom “Terms of Use”[4] and related agreements impose certain rules, and hold the licensee (your library) responsible for any violations, the conditions for library-hosted meetings should not only require adherence to your rules, but also to Zoom’s.

Zoom’s “Acceptable Use” Policy expressly bars numerous types of activity, including but not limited to:

  • Promoting violence.
  • Harming children.
  • Displays of nudity, violence, pornography, sexually explicit material, or criminal activity.
  • Human trafficking.
  • Supporting or facilitating terrorism or terrorist organizations
  • Any activity that is defamatory, harassing, threatening or abusive.[5]
  • Copyright infringement.

I imagine most libraries can endorse these conditions, but some may be (rightly) wary to impose content restrictions on meetings.  While the limits your library has agreed to with Zoom is a contract the library has voluntarily accepted, I can see a (very) few instances where perhaps a first amendment concern could loom.  So any library considering hosting Zoom meetings for users should think that aspect through thoroughly, and be ready to address it just as you address such concerns for physical meetings.

To help a library navigate these straightforward but choppy legal waters—especially the Zoom Terms’ bar on letting a third party use your account—here is a template “Virtual Meeting” Agreement. 

NOTE: As always, template agreements should be reviewed by your library’s legal counsel to ensure they conform with your library’s charter, bylaws, unique identity, and other policies.

Videoconference Meeting Agreement—TEMPLATE ONLY

Person filling out this form [must be cardholder]

 

Group

 

Meeting date, time, duration

 

Target date to send out the invitation

 

Please note: for the orderly operation of the meeting, pre-registration should be required, OR attendees should be given only limited participation ability.

 

 

Purpose of meeting (must be a purpose consistent with library operations)

 

Estimated number of attendees

 

Record meeting?

 

Live stream meeting?  Please list where the livestream will be accessible

 

Please list your group’s Meeting Facilitator

[see Meeting Facilitator Responsibilities below]

Name:

Title:

E-mail:

Phone number:

Address:

[To be filled in by library]

Library Staff serving as “host” on the videoconference.

Name:

Title:

E-mail:

Phone Number:

Facility Use Policy

[attach]

Additional terms of use

https://zoom.us/reasonableusepolicy

 

 

On the above date and time, the [NAME] library will host a meeting of the above-listed group for the above listed purpose.

It is understood that every attendee of the meaning will be expected to abide by both all the applicable rules of the library for meetings at our facility, and to observe any and all above-listed additional conditions. 

The above-listed “Meeting Facilitator” should be logged in to the meeting at least 10 minutes before so they can discuss the orderly conduct of the meeting with Library Staff. 

The Meeting Facilitator must discuss the functional aspects of the meeting with library staff before the start of the meeting; they should be prepared to discuss how attendees will be able to interact and how the relevant functions of the meeting will be used to meet the meeting's stated purpose.

The Meeting Facilitator should also be comfortable with using Zoom's capabilities to assist the Library Staff in hosting the meeting (monitoring the chat, moderating the discussion, muting or removing participants if needed).

When it is time for the meeting to begin, the library staff hosting the meeting will state:

“Welcome to [MEETING NAME].  Hosting an online meeting with your group is a service the library provides to our community groups without charge.  Just as with hosting meetings in our physical space, the library must enforce rules regarding respect, non-discrimination, and accessibility.  If you have concerns in that regard, please let me know by sending me a private message during the meeting.  And now I’ll turn it over to [NAME] to start the meeting.”

It is expressly understood on behalf of the group that:

  • The library is hosting the meeting;
  • An employee of the library will initiate the videocall;
  • An employee of the library will co-facilitate the technical aspects of the meeting;
  • An employee of the library will participate in the meeting as set forth above to ensure the applicable rules and the conditions of this Agreement are fulfilled;
  • Participants who do not abide by the library’s rules will be muted or removed from the meeting, in the library’s sole discretion;
  • The library can cancel or terminate the meeting, in its sole discretion, at any time.

Please alert the library to any ADA considerations for hosting this meeting.  For meetings with more than 50 participants, the Meeting Facilitator should be ready to discuss accessibility objectives with the Library Staff member.

We welcome your ideas for making our co-hosted meetings better.  Constructive feedback may be sent to [e-mail].

 

Signed: ___________________________________

                        [library representative]

 

Acknowledged: __________________________________ on DATE: ______________.

                                    [cardholder]

 

Unless there is a bylaw, policy, or contract barring staff serving as the meeting host, this is most definitely a service that can be offered even when your library cannot be physically open to the public.  However, at all times, it must be clear that this is the library’s meeting.  Account ID’s, passwords, and hosting capabilities should not be given away.  Co-hosting should never be converted into changing the host.  The meeting “intro-text” should be read every time; it is there to make sure that the library’s primary role is documented in every single meeting you host.  Just like a meeting room should never be used when the library is not staffed, the virtual meeting room must remain in the control of your institution—otherwise, there could be concerns with the license. 

And with that, I wish whoever at your library becomes the “virtual meeting staffer,” a stout heart, a quick finger on the mute button, and lots of community-oriented fun.



[1] I have since been informed that either pronunciation is acceptable.  Fortunately, with my spare fashion sense, it is not a word I use often.

[2] As found May 23, 2020 at https://zoom.us/reasonableusepolicy.

[3] The conditions in these documents will change from library to library.  Some libraries have to enforce the rules of a landlord.  Others will decide to charge a nominal fee (DO NOT do that for a Zoom meeting), or restrict use to a charitable use.

[4] As found on May 23, 2020 at https://zoom.us/terms.

[5] By the time I got to this part of the list, I was thinking “Jeez, it’s an ugly world out there, and Zoom has a front-row seat to it.”

Tags: COVID-19, Emergency Response, Meeting Room Policy, Library Programming and Events, Local Organizations, Online Programming, Policy, Zoom

Topic: Emergency Policy Manual - 5/11/2020
As we look to re-opening our public libraries with abridged services, we want to limit the chances...
Posted: Monday, May 11, 2020 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

As we look to re-opening our public libraries with abridged services, we want to limit the chances of legal challenge from organizations who seek to make a statement about government response to COVID-19 and social distancing measures. We are considering a recommendation to have a brief policy manual addendum with policy adjustments that supersede the policy manual, have a short review and renew period (aligned with the library board meeting schedule), and are triggered by an objective, external to the library, event. What elements would we need to include in this addendum to make it legally enforceable, while not re-writing the entire policy manual?

Take, for instance, a library's meeting room policy. For a library with a 2,000 sq ft community room, with a normal occupancy of 250 persons and a seated occupancy of 150 persons (fake numbers), in which the board meets every other month.
- Initial addendum policy would have a line which said "Meeting Room: The meeting room is closed to all groups. Policy approved April 27, 2020. Will expire June 26, 2020."
- At the June board meeting the board passed "Meeting Room: The meeting room will open for library sponsored programming July 1st. Registration will be required and limited to 20 persons to follow current social distancing guidelines. Policy approved June 26, 2020. Will expire August 27, 2020."

And so on.

What are recommendations for the pre-amble of such an addendum? What should we make sure to include in the board motion to enact the emergency policy addendum such that it supersedes the standard manual?

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

This answer is being composed on May 9, 2020.  New York is still fully on PAUSE, but the Governor has divided the State into ten districts who must hit seven defined metrics to begin rolling back various restrictions.[1]  Careful prognosticators are cautioning that what is rolled back can also be re-implemented, so caution and flexibility are the watchwords of the times.

In this context, many libraries are considering a phased resumption or extension of operations, and to do so, may need to adjust many of their standing policies.

As the member’s question highlights, the stakes for such adjustments can be high.  The greatest risk in taking emergency and temporary measures are that: 1) they are not legal; 2) they create legal but mission-averse collateral consequences[2]; 3) they are legal and perfectly mission-aligned, but still just make people mad.

Right now, libraries don’t have the luxury of time to fully mitigate these risks.  But collecting, assessing, and documenting some steps, a library can do its best to avoid them.

Here is how to do that:

Step 1: Inventory your board’s authority and obligations

Library leadership seeking to temporarily adjust library policy to address COVID-19 must first assemble the following:

  • The library’s charter
  • The library’s bylaws
  • The library’s policies
  • Any collective bargaining agreement (“CBA”)
  • Any employment contracts
  • Any judicial orders, settlement terms binding your library[3]
  • Any COVID-19-related resolutions
  • Current budget
  • The 202-series Executive Orders posted at https://www.governor.ny.gov/executiveorders

Many libraries will already have these assembled from previous such exercises.

 

Step 2: Inventory the specific policies your library needs to adjust

This “inventory” should include a citation to each policy your library needs to adjust, the basis of the need, any legal compliance considerations, what the precise terms of the proposed temporary change are, and, as the member writes, the reversion trigger of duration of the change.

This sounds painstaking and arduous, and it will be.  Fortunately, when it comes to the painstaking and arduous act of organizing information, libraries have a home team advantage. 

And don’t worry, in the next step I give you a chart to sort it all out.

 

Step 3: Identify what’s needed: alteration of the policy, or complete suspension?

In some cases, a policy will just need some small, temporary alterations to continue serving the requirements of the law and the needs of the library and its community.  However, some policies are so complex, or so rife with temporarily unsafe practices, they will simply need to be suspended.[4]

Here is a chart template that sets the “inventory” categories of Step 2, with examples the two types of adjustments:

1. Policy or obligation to adjust

2.  Basis of need to adjust

3.  Law or policy governing change

4.  Proposed

Adjusted provision

5.  Reversion trigger or duration

 

Example: Policy temporarily altered

 

Policy B-2: Board Meetings

 

Limits on large gatherings and social distancing requirements requires limiting in-person contact

 

Board meetings are controlled by the Education Law Section 260 and Article 7 of the Public Officers’ Law (“Open Meetings Law”), but are temporarily governed by Executive Order 202.12.

 

As allowed by the EO 202.12, the Board shall meet via teleconference, and the audio shall be simultaneously available at a link on the library’s website, as well as recorded and transcribed.

This adjustment shall be in effect until the expiration of the terms of EO 202.12.

 

Example: Policy temporarily suspended

 

Meeting Room Policy allowing use on a reservation basis.

 

The Library wants to use the Meeting Room but must suspend community use to observe current social distancing requirements and health-oriented practices.

 

 

Executive Order # and #, as well as the usual laws governing use of library property.

 

To ensure observance of [cite EOs] the Meeting Room policy is suspended until two weeks after the last remaining restriction is lifted.

 

 

To allow time for cleaning and operational adjustment, the regular policy will go back into effect two weeks after the last remaining restriction is lifted.

 

Step 4: Contrast the adjustments with your library’s obligations

This is really a second look at the third column- “Law or policy governing change.” 

It encourages your leadership—and ideally, your lawyer—to take a deep look at any standing legal obligations, and make sure your temporary adjustment doesn’t run afoul of them.

For instance, in the Meeting Room Policy example, let’s say that, per the policy, the library had a standing, written agreement for the room to be used by a writer’s group on a weekly basis.  This might require an extra step in your adjustment to the policy, with some targeted outreach to cancel what might be regarded by the group as a written contract.[5]

SPECIAL NOTE FOR LIBRARIES WITH UNIONS: Step 4 is especially critical if there is a union contract involved.  Throughout this time of COVID-19 response, I have seen many examples of situations where a library’s prospective plans have been impacted by CBA provisions for emergency closure or other obligations. I have written about that at length elsewhere,[6] so for now, will simply say: in all of this a library’s union should be an ally and critical stakeholder promoting employee well-being, and hopefully the need for any changes to routine policy and procedure can be approached in that spirit. 

 

Step 5:  Diplomacy Check

Technically, this is not a “legal” step, but I can say that in many ways this step is the most important part of avoiding needless legal threats and hostility.

Step 5 involves taking yet another look at the chart, and adding other two columns, covering: “Who will be impacted by this policy change?” and “How can we roll out the change to lessen any negative impact?”[7]

Here is what these columns look like in my imaginary examples:

6.  Who will be impacted by this policy change?

7.  How can we roll out the change to lessen any negative effects?

Board Meeting Policy Example:

 

 

Everyone who relies on library board meetings as a chance to scour the budget and yell at the treasurer about how much was spent on new shelving, even though the purchase followed every bidding step required by state procurement rules.[8]

 

The library will put up a sign on the front door, and in the usual places where the library sends formal notices about the meetings, saying: 

 

As you know, our board is meeting via telephone and working to keep our library ready to serve the community!  You can hear our meetings at [link] or get a recording at [way].  We’ll have transcripts ready a month after the meeting.  Please keep in touch by sending your comments to [NAME] at [ADDRESS].”

 

Meeting Room Policy Example:

 

People who really, really just want to see their writing group.

 

 

The director will ask [STAFF] to outreach to the regular groups, to see if they need assistance finding alternate resources while we wait to welcome them back.

 

 

And with all that legwork done, we can now answer the member’s core questions:

Question 1: What elements would we need to include in this addendum to make it legally enforceable, while not re-writing the entire policy manual?
The elements would be 1) a preamble setting forth the board’s authority, goal and process for the temporary changes; 2) a list identifying the policies that are temporarily suspended or temporarily altered; and 3) an articulation of the replacement policy or temporary changes.

 

Question 2: What are recommendations for the preamble of such an addendum?

Here is a template for the preamble:

The [NAME] Library was chartered in [YEAR] by the New York Board of Regents, and operates under the authority of that Charter, the New York Education and Not-for-Profit corporation law.  In accordance with that authority and in compliance with the Library’s bylaws [OPTIONAL IF UNION AGREEMENT OR OTHER CONTRACTS ALSO GOVERN: and all other applicable obligating documents], to promote the mission of the library, the safety of all it serves and employs, and the needs of the community at this time, the following temporary changes to the following policies are made:

And here is how you link it to the other elements:

[INSERT chart with only columns 1, 4, and 5].

 

Question 3: What should we make sure to include in the board motion to enact the emergency policy addendum such that it supersedes the standard manual?

Here is template language for a board motion:

WHEREAS the State of New York is currently subject to Executive Orders governing the State’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic; and

WHEREAS the [NAME] Library’s mission is to [INSERT]; and

WHEREAS some of the Executive Orders impact the ability of the Library to fulfill its mission while abiding by its usual policies and procedures; and

[INSERT ONLY IF APPLICABLE] WHEREAS the Library is also subject to the terms of a collective bargaining agreement signed on DATE: and

[INSERT ONLY IF APPLICABLE] WHEREAS the Library is also subject to [variable]; and

WHEREAS the Library has developed temporary adjustments to its usual policies and procedures, with all due consideration of its standing obligations, to aid itself in operating safely and in compliance with the orders, and in period of recovery to follow;

BE IT RESOLVED that the following temporary changes, for the corresponding durations sets forth below, are enacted, effective immediately:

[insert chart with columns 1, 4, and 5]

AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the full chart setting forth these temporary adjustments shall be posted on the Library’s usual place for posting policies no later than [DATE]; and

AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the following measures to positively communicate these temporary adjustments shall be taken:

[INSERT measures identified in column 7].

 

Final thoughts

When using these steps, it will be important to remember that an individual library’s response will be informed by not only their unique documents and priorities, but which of New York’s ten regions[9] they are in.  This means that what works for one library won’t necessarily work for a similar library in the next county over.  Nor should one library be judged by what is being done at another.

And finally—and I have mentioned this in several columns lately, but I will mention it again—attorneys throughout New York State are stepping up to the pro bono plate these days.  Now is the time to see if your library can enlist an attorney familiar with municipal, education, employment law, even if it is just to take a fresh, hard look at your final product.  If you can’t find that attorney, you can ask for a referral from your local bar association.

By assembling the documents listed in this answer, and identifying your priorities and concerns in the chart, you’ll help that attorney help your library.  In addition, I welcome questions from local attorneys who are helping their local libraries pro bono; they can reach me at adams@losapllc.com, or my library paralegal Jill at libraryspecialist@losapllc.com.

As the member’s excellent question suggests, the more unified and well-developed the response of libraries can be, the more we can avoid challenges, and focus libraries’ energy on the business of serving the public.  Sadly, the need for that energy will be great.

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to answer this very important question. 



[2] Like a writers’ group saying: “Forget it.  We’ll just meet at Starbuck’s.”

[3] For instance, if a patron brought a legal action under ADA, and the library reached a compromise it is legally bound to follow.  Most libraries will not be subject to any such restrictions, but I want to ensure they aren’t forgotten.

[4] In my experience, unless the law mandates that you have one (for instance, certain libraries must, under the Education law, have an internet access policy) suspending a policy is also the way to avoid inviting arguments with people who will try and word-smith your temporary adjustments.  As a lawyer, I do enjoy a good quibble, but there’s a time and place for it, and debating when a writer’s group can get back in the community room might not be the best use of energy right now.

[5] It really sounds like I am picking on this writer’s group!  I’m not, we’re a fan of writer’s groups in my law firm (they produce writers, who are part of our client base).  I think it’s just that in my mind everyone is, at this mid-May point, is very eager to resume normal social activity.  I know I am.  Meeting on Zoom is like eating low-fat olive oil.

[7] This is not a legal tactic tested on the bar exam.  I learned this from my mentors at Niagara University, where I served as General Counsel for ten years.  When legal strategy was proposed, their first thoughts were always about how it would hit the very real people involved. 

[8] One of my favorite quotes about this phenomenon is from Parks and Recreation: “So what I hear when I am being yelled at is people caring loudly at me.”

[9] My poor staff.  They just got used to New York being divided into nine library council districts, and 23 public library system districts.   Val, our keeper of the “library map,” should be getting danger pay.

Tags: COVID-19, Emergency Response, Meeting Room Policy, Policy

Topic: 501c3 Rules for Meeting Room Use - 11/6/2019
I need clarification about the IRS regulations on 501c3 organizations. A local political group ask...
Posted: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 Permalink

MEMBER QUESTION

I need clarification about the IRS regulations on 501c3 organizations. A local political group asked to use our meeting room space for a 'meet the candidates' event, a library trustee thinks this is not compliant with the "The Restriction of Political Campaign Intervention by Section 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Organizations" https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/charitable-organizations/the-restriction-of-political-campaign-intervention-by-section-501c3-tax-exempt-organizations

I think our meeting room policy is very out of date and restricting access to the room based on content of the meeting violates 1st amendment rights, as outlined by ALA: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/interpretations/meetingrooms

No staff are involved in this event, we have not helped plan it and it was made clear on all the publicity the political group put out that the library is only the venue, we are not hosting, this is not a library program.

Thank you!

WNYLRC ATTORNEY'S RESPONSE

This answer comes with many disclaimers, because the legal parameters of room access and rental at chartered libraries in New York is variable territory.  In other words: the answer can depend on the library’s “type” (set by its charter), its fundamental rules (found in the bylaws), its IRS status (the “501 (c)(3) mentioned by the member”), its day-to-day rules (controlled by policies), its lease (not all libraries own the space they occupy), and any deed restrictions (although deed restrictions on the basis of speech would bring concerns).

That’s right: education law, not-for-profit corporation law, tax law, real property law…this question has it all!

That being said, the member’s question centers on federal tax law; specifically, the library’s 501(c)(3) status, which not only makes the library tax-exempt, but allows it to receive tax-deductible donations.  This status is an important fund-raising asset, and its many conditions (including not engaging in politics) cannot be taken lightly.

Here is what IRS Publication 557, the go-to for creating a tax-exempt entity, has to say about political activity:

If any of the activities (whether or not substantial) of your [501(c)(3)] organization consist of participating in, or intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for public office, your organization won't qualify for tax-exempt status under section 501(c)(3). Such participation or intervention includes the publishing or distributing of statements. Whether your organization is participating or intervening, directly or indirectly, in any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for public office depends upon all of the facts and circumstances of each case. Certain voter education activities or public forums conducted in a nonpartisan manner may not be prohibited political activity under section 501(c) (3), while other so-called voter education activities may be prohibited. [emphasis added]

Like many guides from taxing agencies, this one is superficially helpful (I put that part in bold), but upon examination, employs a disclaim that gives very little concrete guidance (I underlined that part).  So, what’s a library with a spare room to do? 

As alluded to in both the member’s question and my opening paragraph, this question doesn’t turn solely on the IRS.  Any 501(c)(3) library that rents or allows free use of space should have a robust “Facility Use Policy”[1] that considers not only IRS regulations, but safety, equal access, and operational priorities (requiring users to clean up after their meeting, to not be noisy, to respect the space).  For a library in a municipally-owned building, care must be taken to ensure use fees are applied in a way that does not violation the NYS Constitution.  And for a library that rents, the Facility Use Policy must harmonize with the lease.

But the member’s question is about 501(c)(3).  So, having established that this consideration is but one of many when giving access to or renting space, here are the three things to consider when a 501(c)(3) rents or gives access to space:

1)  Rental income needs to be a very small percentage of the library’s revenue. 

Section 501(c)(3) requires that income from renting space can’t outweigh donations and other sources of income related to the library’s tax-exempt purpose.  This is something to discuss with the library’s accountant; while rental income isn’t barred, it can bring funding ration and tax consequences that warrant the attention of a professional.

2) The use of the space can’t “inure” to the benefit of any one company or individual.

Section 501(c)(3) also requires that a qualifying organization’s resources can’t directly benefit any one person or entity more than the general public.  For example, free use of the spare room by a person conducting a stained-glass workshop with an admission fee (even a nominal one), can be considered an “inurement.” [2]

3)  As raised by the member’s trustee, the use of the space cannot violate the bar on lobbying (influencing legislation) and political activity (supporting a particular candidate for office).

And as reviewed, Section 501(c)(3) bars political activity (as further defined in the excerpt from 557, above).

“Ask the Lawyer,” has had some fairly large answers, but I don’t have space to address every occurrence that could run afoul of the bar on “political activity.” But what about renting space, on the same terms as to any other entity, to an event like the one described by the member?

Here is what the IRS has to say:[3]

Can a section 501(c)(3) organization conduct business activities with a candidate for public office?

A business activity such as selling or renting of mailing lists, the leasing of office space or the acceptance of paid political advertising may constitute prohibited political campaign activity. Some factors to consider in determining whether an organization is engaged in prohibited political activity campaign include:

a. Whether the good, service or facility is available to candidates in the same election on an equal basis,

b. Whether the good, service or facility is available only to candidates and not to the general public,

c. Whether the fees charged to candidates are at the organization’s customary and usual rates, and

 d. Whether the activity is an ongoing activity of the organization or whether it is conducted only for a particular candidate.

When developing a Facility Use Policy, if a library is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization, and wishes to be able to rent space to (among others) political organizations for event, the above-listed factors should be built right into the policy.

Here is some sample language (some of it will sound familiar):

As a 501(c)(3) organization, the NAME library does not participate or intervene, directly or indirectly, in any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for public office depends upon all of the facts and circumstances of each case. Therefore, the use of space in our facility by political organizations or for partisan political events is only available on the same rental terms as for the general public, and is subject to a rental fee that is charged equally to any political group or other individual or group.   NOTE: Certain voter education activities or public forums conducted in a nonpartisan manner may qualify for a fee waiver, just as do other free and open events conducted by a charitable entity for the benefit of the public.

So, what about the member’s scenario?   In the absence of a spot-on facility use policy, I suggest the following process:

  1. Using the appropriate tax guidance, the library needs to decide if this particular “Meet the Candidates” event complies with 501(c)(3); in particular, is to be a “public forum conducted in a nonpartisan manner?”  Or is it skewed to benefit one candidate over the other? 
  1. Is the sponsoring organization a charitable entity, or is there any risk that the terms for using the room would be an “inurement?”  Will donations be solicited?  Is money charged to enter?
  1. If the answer to either shows a risk of violating 501(c)(3), then the library needs to consider if it wants to follow the formula to “do business” with a candidate for public office.  This would mean charging for the use as you would any other use.

If the library’s past practices make following those three steps too blurry, it is best to take a pass on this precise event, and take the time to develop an up-to-date and thorough Facility Use Policy that considers the types of uses the library will allow, and how and when it will charge for them. There are many good models out there to draw inspiration from, but before the board passes such a policy, it would be good to have it reviewed by a lawyer (who has ready the charter, bylaws, other policies, lease, deed, and any other relevant documents).

The member’s library is fortunate to have leadership that is thinking about both the first amendment and safeguarding the organization’s tax status.  Good work.  No matter what the final decision, awareness and commitment to these values serves your community.

 



[1] The member has stated their policy might not be suited to addressing this situation.  We’ll tackle that in a bit.

[2] If this just caused a stab of panic because your library let’s an instructor host a “Yoga for Seniors” class for a minimum fee to the instructor, don’t worry, this event can happen…you just have to do it right.

 

Tags: IRS, Laws, Library Programming and Events, Meeting Room Policy, Policy, Taxes

Year

0

2016 4

2017 24

2018 29

2019 42

2020 68

Topics

501c3 2

Academic Libraries 2

Accessibility 4

ADA 8

Archives 1

Association Libraries 2

Behavioral misconduct 1

Board of Trustees 4

Branding and Trademarks 1

Broadcasting 1

Budget 1

Cease and desist 1

Children in the Library 1

Circular 21 1

Contact tracing 1

CONTU 2

copyleft 1

Copyright 72

COVID-19 51

CPLR 4509 3

Crafting 1

Criminal Activity 1

Data 2

Defamation 1

Derivative Works 3

Digital Access 9

Digital Exhibits 1

Digitization and Copyright 11

Disclaimers 3

Discrimination 1

Dissertations and Theses 1

DMCA 2

Donations 3

E-Books and Audiobooks 2

Ed Law 2-d 1

Education Law Section 225 1

Elections 2

Emergency Response 42

Employee Rights 8

Ethics 4

Executive Order 3

Fair Use 29

Fan Fiction 1

Fees and Fines 3

FERPA 5

First Amendment 1

First Sale Doctrine 3

Forgery and Fraud 1

Friends of the Library 2

Fundraising 1

Hiring Practices 1

Historic Markers 1

HRL 1

Identity Theft 1

IRS 1

Labor 3

Laws 20

Liability 1

LibGuides 1

Library Buildings 1

Library Card Policy 1

Library Cards 1

Library Programming and Events 9

Licensing 3

LLCs 1

Loaning programs 1

Local Organizations 1

Management 16

Meeting Room Policy 6

Memorandum of Understanding 1

Microfilm 1

Movies 5

Municipal Libraries 5

Music 12

Newspapers 3

Omeka 1

Online Programming 11

Open Meetings Law 1

Oral Histories 1

Overdrive 1

Ownership 1

Parodies 1

Personnel Records 1

Photocopies 15

Photographs 1

Policy 35

Preservation 2

Privacy 11

Property 3

PTO, Vacation, and Leave 1

Public Access 1

Public Domain 7

Public Health 1

Public Libraries 12

Public Officers Law 1

Public Records 2

Quarantine Leave 2

Reopening policies 8

Retention 3

Retirement 1

Ripping/burning 1

Safety 4

Salary 2

School Ballots 1

School Libraries 5

Section 108 2

Section 110 2

Section 1201 1

Security Breach 2

Sexual Harassment 2

SHIELD Act 2

Smoking or Vaping 2

Social Media 4

SORA 1

Story time 3

Streaming 13

SUNY 1

Swank Movie Licensing 3

Taxes 4

Teachers Pay Teachers 1

Telehealth 1

Template 3

Textbooks 3

Umbrella Licensing 2

VHS 4

Voting 1

W3W 1

WAI 1

Work From Home 1

Yearbooks 2

Zoom 2

The WNYLRC's "Ask the Lawyer" service is available to members of the Western New York Library Resources Council. It is not legal representation of individual members.